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L D 


LaLGr Class. Sern 





Formerly Scholar of Jesus College, Cambridge ; Assistant Mastet 
at Westminster School 



i - 




Latin Grammar Papers. For Middle Forms. Selected from 
Oxford and Cambridge Local and London Matriculation Exami- 
nations. By A. C. LlDDELL, M.A. F'cap 8vo, cloth, Is. 

First Steps in Continuous Latin Prose. By \v. c. FLAMSTEAD 
WALTERS, M.A. Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. Key (for Teachers only), 
2s. 6d. net. 

Hints and Helps in Continuous Latin Prose. By W. C. F. 
WALTERS, M.A. Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. Key (for Teachers only), 
2s. 6d. net. 

Greek Grammar Papers. Selected and arranged by A. C. LLD- 
DELL, M.A., Assistant Master in Westminster School. Cloth, 
Is. 6d. 

Hints and Helps in Continuous Greek Prose. By W. C. 

FLAMSTEAD WALTERS, M.A. Crown 8vo, cloth, 2s. Qd- 



These papers are intended for middle forms, to 
be done either in writing or vivd wee. The questions 
in 1-31 are on accidence only, and follow the usual 
arrangement of Latin grammars; those in 32-42 are for 
the most part taken from or modelled on recent Oxford 
or Cambridge Junior Local papers; 43-49 from the 
same, Senior papers; 50-57 from London matriculation 
examinations. From 58 to the end the questions are 
mainly though not entirely on syntax. At the end of 
each paper are given some sentences for translation into 
Latin, each either illustrating some idiom or containing 
some simple catch. It is hoped that the index will be 
useful in enabling a teacher to put his finger at once 
on the particular sort of question required, without the 
necessity of hunting through the book. 

A. C. L. 


A few corrections and alterations have been made in 
the present edition, and a Vocabulary has been added. 


1. Give the genitive singular of vir, gener, socer, 
vesper, liber, accipiter, alacer, ater, neuter, iter, 

2. Give the ablative singular and genitive plural 
of grex, fons, vox, ius, caput, calcar, genus, and 

3. Decline together melius cornu, supplex agricola, 
felix tribus. 

4. Give the names of the months in Latin. What 
gender are they, and why? 

5. Compare asper, pulcer, aequus, dubius, malefi- 
cus. What is the Latin for 70, 70th, 70 each, 70 
times, 700, 700 times? 

6. What is the vocative singular of meus, tuus, 
suus; the nominative plural neuter of qui, quis, 
aliquis; the genitive singular of uter, alter, alteruter, 
nemo, and se? 

7. What is the Latin for: Be thou heard, let 
them be advised, I am-going-to hear, thou wilt hear, 
of ruling, I shall have been taken, ye might be 
taken, lead, say, do, I have been advising, lie 
there ? 

8. Put into Latin: (1) His father has gone to 
Rome. (2) He was frightened by the waves. (3) 
He was bitten by the dog. (4) My brother and my 
sister are beautiful. (5) I am about to be loved. 



1. By what rules can the gender of a Latin noun 
be known according to its meaning? What is the 
gender of coniunx, testis, serpens, laurus, October, 
nefas, aestas, auriga, incola? 

2. What are the masculine and the feminine 
endings in the 1st, and the masculine and the neuter 
endings in the 2nd declension? Give a list of femi- 
nine words of the 2nd declension. 

3. Arrange the nouns of the 3rd declension in 
genders according to their endings. 

4. What is the gender of 4th and 5th declension 
nouns? Give a list of exceptions. 

5. Give the gender of the following nouns: origo, 
marmor, teges, arbor, praedo, caro, sanguis, margo, 
bidens (2), pecus (2), iubar, mus, pecten, grex, virtus, 
nemus, rete, stirps, calix, pulvis, piscis, finis, forfex, 
supellex, vas (2), lepus, sal, pugil, animal, ren, uber, 
ver, linter, adeps. 

6. Put into Latin: (1) I gave him the swiftest 
horse I had. (2) It is said that he forgot the 
weapons he had bought. (3) They got back to 
camp with the loss of a few men. (4) Have you 
been told what you have got to do? 



1. Decline in the singular gener, miles, coniunx, 
celer, and in the plural mare, nox, vas, dives. Give 
the genders of manus, vulgus, ver, orbis, ordo. 

2. Compare cito, audacter, frugi, aequus, pius, 
gracilis, nequam, benevolus, egenus, and providus. 

3. Decline in the singular ipse, iste, and solus; in 
the plural hie, uter; in full nemo. 

4. Give the Latin for 18, 60, 70, 98, 126, 200, 
700, 1000, 10,000, and 1,000,000, and the ordinals, 
distributives, and numeral adverbs of each. 

5. What numerals are used to express indefinitely 
large numbers, e.g. " to find a hundred reasons ". 

6. What is the force of unus in ' omnium doctissi- 
mus unus ' ? What is the Latin for ' one camp', ' five 
camps', 'five forts', 'three letters', 'twice two are 
four ', ' a thousand ships ', ' every other day', ' every 
3rd year'? 

7. Decline tribus, genu, and meridies. Give in- 
stances of nouns which belong to two declensions. 
What are such nouns called? 

8. Put into Latin: (1) The noble Brutus. (2) I 
gave my father this. (3) He came from Africa to 
Rome. (4) Come with me. (5) Caius is the man 
I obey. 



1. What is the meaning of obtineo, occupo, 
pendeo, pendo, ignosco, pasco, compesco, explode, 
occido, occido, mando (2) ? 

2. Write down the principal parts of fido, tollo, 
viso, iacio, iaceo, findo, figo, fingo, serpo, morior, 
reor, and gaudeo. 

3. Parse the following in as many ways as you 
can, and give the principal parts of the verbs from 
which they come : passi, ref ertis, victum, visi, edere, 
mulsi, luxere, docere. 

4. Give the supine of haereo, haurio, sperno, 
sterno, vivo, vinco, vincio, sero (2), tero, flecto, fluo, 
gero, uro, cognosco, pario, pareo; and the perfect of 
nascor, nanciscor, metior, mentior, ordior, orior, 
fulgeo, fulcio, fero, ferio, reperio, cano, concino. 

5. Derive English words from the supine of 
poto, lavo, aboleo, mulceo, tergeo, tondeo, colo, 
coquo, caedo, trudo, pungo, edo, volvo, haurio, 

6. Name three verbs which belong both to the 
second and the third conjugation. 

V. Put into Latin: (1) I am about to be killed. 
(2) He looked round on those standing by. (3) This 
concerns us much, but makes no difference to our 
children. (4) How much did the house cost? Two 



1. Mention the various meanings of amare, rege, 
audiere, regere, monere, auditis, amate, audire, esse. 

2. How is the place of the perfect participle 
active supplied? Put into Latin: Having taken 
the city he departed; having taken the city he 
burnt it. 

3. Mention five ways of forming the perfect in- 
dicative. What is the rule for forming the perfect 
of reduplicated verbs when compounded with a 

4. When do verbs of the 3rd conjugation in -io 
drop the it In what respects does the conjugation 
of a deponent verb differ from that of a passive 

5. Explain with examples the terms semi-de- 
ponent, quasi-passive verbs. What peculiarity is 
there in iuro, ceno, prandeo ? 

6. What are inceptive, desiderative, frequentative 
verbs? How are they formed, to what conjugations 
do they belong? 

7. Put into Latin: (1) Does anyone suppose they 
will enjoy their leisure? (2) News was brought 
that as many as possible would be spared. (3) I 
feel sure the speech will be a hindrance to all. 



1. Compound fero with a, cum, ad; audio with 
ob; ago with cum, per, circum; lego with cum, 
inter; quatio with cum; rego with sub; laedo with 
in, and give their principal parts. 

2. Form derivative verbs from iacio, cano, edo, 
curro, dormio, ardeo; puer, mitis, vesper. How do 
inceptives form their perfect? 

3. Give two meanings to each of the following 
verbs: fundo, volo, colligo, mando; crevi, luxi, 
fulsi, pavi; colo, praedico, lego, educo; pactum, 
versum, tentum, victum. 

4. Distinguish: fugere, fugere, fugare; tegit, 
texit (2), texuit; vellet, vellit, velit; feris, ferris, 
fers; parit, paret, parat; occidit, occidit; caedit, 
cedit, cadit. 

5. Show the force of the preposition in addisco, 
commoveo, deicio, deterreo, dedoceo, exaudio, inter- 
dico, obsum, praeficio, praemoneo, subduco, subse- 
quor, discedo, diligo, renuntio, recludo, reddo. 

6. What is the passive of odi, perdo, vendo, addo ? 
What is the difference in use between coepi and 

7. Put into Latin: (1) The shouts of victory 
startled the onlookers. (2) Tell them not to start 
before I am ready. (3) Let us wait till the clouds 
roll away. (4) All he has learnt himself he has 
taught his son. 



1. Give the gender (of nouns), accusative singular, 
and full plural of pellis, cinis, tussis, hilaris, vetus, 
cassis, calcar, calx, pondus, grandis. 

2. Parse and give the meaning of regnanto, 
peperi, verebere, expergiscere, nise, afuit, prodis, 
iace, fugem. 

3. Give the cardinal numbers from 12 to 20, the 
ordinals from 16th to 23rd, and the distributives 
and numeral adverbs from 6 to 16. 

4. What are the principal parts of pungo, bibo, 
avello, nitor, digero, consuesco, ordior, edo, constituo, 
in video, and fido? 

5. What prepositions are required in the follow- 
ing phrases: Word for word, do this for me, about 
a hundred, for the present, in Livy, by Jove! in 
the meantime, at the foot of the hill, towards night, 
in front of the camp, according to nature, about the 
1st of May? 

6. Turn into passive construction: ludimus; 
mater puellae librum dat; te sententiam rogamus; 
eum capitis damnavit. 

7. Put into oratio obliqua: 'Hostes ego neque 
vici neque vincere volui; tuum est eorum urbem 
expugnare '. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) This has happened thrice 
in the last few days. (2) None of you pity us. 
(3) The angry consul ordered them to be put to 
death. (4) He is well spoken of by all the best 



1. Decline in full: ager, aeger, agger, acer (2); 
comes, coma, comis; virus, verus; ver, vir, vis; 
avus, avis, avius; foedus (noun and adjective); 
asper, aper. 

2. Parse in as many ways as possible: seras, 
bello, sine, vivo, teneris, pari, parci, vere, manet, 
voces, ferias. 

3. What meanings may the comparative and the 
superlative have besides that of 'more' and 'most'? 
Illustrate your answer. 

4. Distinguish: forte, forsitan, fortasse; circa, 
circum, circiter; veniam (2), veneam, venam; plebs, 
populus; culpa, crimen; sentio, censeo; iuvenis, 
adolescens; mulier, femina. 

5. Give the principal parts of the verbs from 
which the following come: evanui, peracti, excitus, 
sprevere, cretus, metire, molltur, molitur, dederis, 
stratum, disseris. 

6. What kind of verbs are exulo, fio, veneo, 
esurio, audeo, mitesco, scriptito ? Give the meanings 
of these words. 

7. How many Latin words do you know for 
water, sea, sword, river, star, world? 

8. Put into Latin: (1) It is silly of you to be 
vexed by trifles. (2) It was all your doing that 
we did not gain the prize. (3) There is no reason 
why we should envy you. (4) He thinks he will 
be made king. 



1. Give the stem, gender (of nouns), and ablative 
singular of cervix, quadrans, integer, colus, vervex, 
apex, pix, nux, remex, abies, satelles, locuples, com- 
pos, bipes, heres, deses. 

2. What are the principal parts of pando, pendo, 
pendeo, edo, edo, lego, lego, tundo, ref ercio, expello, 
findo, and consulo? 

3. Translate: I will do it for you; I cannot see 
for the fog; he fought for his country; to change 
war for peace; send for the doctor; love for one's 
country; he acted bravely, for a Lydian. 

4. Write down the 2nd singular future indie., 
present and imperf. subj. of fero, eo, fio, malo, nolo; 
the imperative of eo, nolo, duco, facio, efficio. What 
is used for the future infinitive passive of facio ? 

5. When would you translate ' anyone ' by quis, 
quisquam, quivis, ecquis, respectively? 

6. What is the meaning of feriae, fasti, nundinae, 
infitiae, exsequiae? How is unus used in the 

7. What is etymologically the meaning of piety, 
calculate, govern, prejudice, procrastinate, duplicity, 
corroborate ? 

8. Put into Latin: (1) The soldiers, who were in 
the market-place, rushed to the gate. (2) The 
soldiers who were in the market-place rushed to 
the gates. (3) Before long I shall go to visit my 
brother in Capua. 



1. Give the stem, meaning, gender (of nouns), and 
ablative singular and genitive plural of palus, dis- 
cors, vates, poema, Simois, Pallas, auceps, inops, 
Arabs, flamen, turbo, hirudo, margo, sermo, Hanni- 
bal, vigil, exul. 

2. What is the Latin for how many, how great, 
how few do right, all the money you have, what a 
big fire, so many and great dangers, such a good 
citizen, somebody will say, he thinks himself some- 
body, some trifle or other ? 

3. When is nostrum used for the genitive plural 
of ego, when nostril 

4. What are some of the endings which denote 
respectively action, agent, and quality? What is 
the force of the endings -etum, -ax, -tas, -osus, -ilis ? 
Form adjectives from diu, hodie, nimis, simul, heri, 

5. Give the future participle and an English 
derivative of scindo, desisto, parco, nubo, tergeo, 
sancio, insilio, elicio, metior, collido, sterno, exquiro, 
comminiscor, experior, aboleo, texo, redimo, queror. 

6. Translate: bene audit ab omnibus, nil moror, 
convenit victos discedere, patriam fugit, multum 
mea refert, ripam evadit. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) He hopes to be made king. 
(2) I hope we are not deceived in this. (3) It seems 
to me I have made a mistake. (4) A famous thanks- 
giving occurred in the reign of Victoria. 



1. Give the participle perfect of fatiscor, fateor; 
vivo, vinco, vincio; cedo, cado, caedo; haereo, haurio; 
mentior, metior, meto; fingo, figo; quaero, queror; 
sperno, sterno; tendo, teneo; nanciscor, nascor; 
cresco, cerno; seco, sequor. 

2. Give the perfect indicative, 3rd plural, of cir- 
cumsto, condo, quiesco, exardesco, coalesco, resipisco, 
nigresco. When do compounds of do and sto form 
their perfect with e, when with i in the penultimate? 

3. What are the syncopated forms of surrexisse, 
repositis, implevero, novisti, virorum, editis, and the 
full forms of noris, sentibat, accestis? 

4. Parse: itur, rati, fores, sentis, decori, fide, 
necem, generi. 

5. Compare egenus, frugi, providus, audacter, and 
give the gender and genitive singular of femur, 
supellex, nix, praedo, Apollo, vervex. 

6. What parts of speech may ' cuius' be? Make 
a sentence to illustrate each meaning. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) When I see him I shall 
make a point of ascertaining his views on this bill. 
(2) Be silent that you may hear the better. (3) He 
could not help giving vent to his envy. (4) Are 
you silly enough to suppose you will prevent his 
coming here? 



1. Give general rules for determining the gender 
of a Latin noun by its meaning. 

2. Decline throughout dea, Atrides, films, and 
deus. Give the vocative singular of Boreas, Claudius, 
and the genitive plural of denarius, Argivus, terri- 
gena, amphora, and drachma. 

3. What was the locative case, and what were its 
original endings? Give the Latin for at Tarentum, 
at Gades, at Athens, at Carthage. 

4. Give the meaning, gender, genitive singular 
and plural of arbor, fides, palus (2), honor, grando, 
ars, dens, comes, rete, vas. 

5. State rules for the formation of the genitive 
plural of the 3rd declension. What is the genitive 
plural of frons, canis, rex, ci vitas? 

6. How do adjectives of the second class (i.e. 
which follow the 3rd declension) form their ablative 
singular, nominative neuter plural, and genitive 
plural? Give these cases of felix, melior, princeps, 
and celeber. 

7. What old forms of the 1st declension genitive 
singular are found? Give instances. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) There are as many good 
fish in the sea as have ever been caught before. 

(2) Some trust in chariots and others in horses. 

(3) He came without being asked. 




1. Form diminutives from rex, blandus, populus, 
miser, labrum, pugnus, paucus, opus, ratio, canis, 
versus. What do diminutives express, besides 
smallness ? 

2. Translate: Caesar and his army; the month 
of June; at the top of one's speed; to watch the 
sky; to go bail for one; in your father's house; he 
spoke in a passion; all the wisest men; the first to 
speak will be punished; what o'clock is it? in my 

3. Give instances of cedo, consulo, credo, invideo, 
tempero used both transitively and intransitively. 

4. Mark the quantities of virium, credidit, noli- 
mus, fieri, possumus, sustuli, rediere, reditus, Aeneas, 
veritas, divinitus, intus, mulieris, iacere, maneres, 
audivisses, barbari, pecudis, fatalis, heroas. 

5. Give the principal parts of per-quatio, con-laedo, 
de-iacio, per-rego, pro-eo, per-ago, de-habeo, de-cado, 
con-habeo, ex-fero. 

6. What is the genitive plural of pecus (2) animal, 
stirps, quercus, gurges, praes, caupo, aequor, cor, 
obses, mollis, armiger, ad vena, robur, fur; and the 
ablative singular of inops, dives, maior, neuter, 
uber, alacer, ingens, puppis, navis, far, gradus, nix, 
supellex ? 

7. Put into Latin: (1) The doctor and his brother 
treated the wounded most skilfully. (2) He was 
informed he must die, and declared he was glad to 
hear it. (3) So far from preventing him from 
returning, I have sent him back home. 

(M450) B 



1. Write down the accusative singular of aether, 
rhetor, heros, Socrates; the genitive of Sophocles, 
Dido; and the ablative of Nereus and Phoebe. 

2. What is the nominative and accusative plural 
of lampas, heros, and the genitive and ablative 
plural of poema? 

3. Give the genitive plural of apis, mensis, senex, 
canis, iuvenis, and mater. Also of vis, mus, lis, 
cohors, civitas, parens, and the ablative singular of 
mare, rete, calcar, navis, imber. 

4. Point out any peculiarities in the declension 
of requies, iugerum, vas (n.), penus, opem, vicem, 
fors, and nemo. 

5. Parse: perpeti, repente, caelo, nube, servi, hae- 
sura, iactura, commenti, duce, mentum, face, feris. 

6. What is the English for pietas, honor, tumul- 
tus, cesso, f erox, materia, desidero ? The Latin for 
return the books; return home; prosperity, adver- 
sity; he succeeded to the throne; his enterprise 
succeeded; a horrid crime? 

7. Put into Latin: (1) Lucullus was many times 
richer than any of his contemporaries. (2) He 
asked me for some money to buy bread with. (3) 
He is too strong a man to be frightened by trifles. 
(4) It was a very silly thing to go barefoot through 
the snow. 



1. Parse: senuit, nexuere, victurus, pelle, generi, 
gradere, telis. 

2. Give the feminine of Phoenix, iuvencus, avus, 
socer, tibicen; and the masculine of capella, anus, 
ancilla. Distinguish between vir and homo, patruus 
and avunculus, cera and cerse, leporis and leporis. 

3. What are epicene nouns? Give examples. 

4. Compare dexter, sinister, audax, impius, prae, 

5. What are factitive verbs? Give examples. 

6. Form adjectives from aurum, Athenae, diu, 
terra, Italia, fatum, sanguis, extra. What is the 
Latin for a man of courage, a sword of iron, the 
citizens of Rome, roses of yesterday, to die of disease, 
full of water, all of us, of one's own accord ? 

7. Give the principal parts of (marking the quan- 
tity of the penult in the perfect) tollo, diffindo, 
decido, ofiero, fundo, fallo; also the imperative of 
iaceo, mentior, expergiscor, deferor. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) When you have reached 
the top of the hill, turn to the right. (2) If there's 
anything to use I'll use it; if not, I can easily go 
without. (3) I cannot help thinking we have done 
wrong. (4) I rather think he is more talkative 
than brave. 



1. Conjugate the present indicative active and 
passive of fero. What is the meaning of potens? 
How do you render 'not being able*? Do you 
know any other form of possum, and any other 
words meaning ' I am able' ? 

2. What peculiarities are there in the conjugation 
of fero? Give the 2nd singular present and future 
indicative, and present and imperfect subjunctive 
active and passive, of fero. 

3. Give the present and imperfect subjunctive 
and the imperative of fio, nolo, eo. 

4. What contractions are there for visne, si vis, 
si vultis? What other forms are there of edis, edit, 
ederem, editur, edam ? Account for them. 

5. What is the English of salve, ave, vale, age, 
apage, cedo, cette ? 

6. Give a list of impersonal verbs with their 
meaning and construction. Conjugate 'I must 
play', in Latin. 

7. Give instances of deponents which use their 
perfect participle both actively and passively. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) I thought he was dying. 

(2) I knew he would have come if he had been able. 

(3) I will prevent them from returning the money. 

(4) Whether the king is white or black, he is not a 
person we can despise. 



1. What are patronymics? Form patronymics 
from Aeacus, Tantalus, Perseus, Aeneas. 

2. What are the diminutives of flos, bos, avis, rete, 
oculus, lapis, catena, signum, pars? 

3. Mention adjectives derived from rex, alius, 
servus, navis, miles, mare, senex, imperator, Cannae, 
Tarentum, Antium. 

4. Explain with illustrations the force of the 
endings -ax, -bundus, -etum, -men, -fer, -eus, -osus. 

5. What are the feminines of Thrax, Ores, Tros, 
Phoenix, verres, bos, gallus, gener, verna; and the 
masculines of anus, leaena, femina, capella? 

6. Mention abstract nouns derived from rex, 
servus, testis, cliens, potens, fortis, aeger, novus, 
bonus, vir. 

7. State in what particulars the conjugation of a 
deponent verb differs from that of a passive verb. 
How does Latin supply the place of the perfect 
participle active? 

8. Put into Latin: (1) The general took the city 
and set it on fire. (2) The enemy having burnt the 
city departed home. (3) Anyone can do this. (4) 
What o'clock is it? (5) If he had shown himself 
brave, he would still be alive. 



1. What is the force of the termination in dume- 
tum, armarium, misellus, diuturnus, rapax, amator, 
aegritudo, amabilis, Pelopides, agmen? 

2. Parse: satis, poti, seni, farier, fuat, pone, nosti, 
exstinxem, repostus, amarunt, rexere. 

3. What is the meaning of nedum, scilicet, quippe, 
denuo, saltern, parum, nimis, quorsum, and hactenus? 

4. Give the infinitive, future perfect indicative, 
and future participle of occido, ref ercio, sentio, pasco, 
incendo, pendo, occulo, gigno, meto, necto, elicio, 
allicio, spargo, tero, resto. 

5. Form diminutives from fabula, miser, scutum, 
homo, virgo, corona, pars, lapis. 

6. Decline in the singular fides, exul, sospes, pubes; 
in the plural, vetus, nostras, portus, magistratus. 

7. What is the Latin for famous, large, honest, 
glorious, crime, fatal, occupy, obtain ? The English 
of famosus, largus, honestus, gloriosus, crimen, 
f atalis, occupo, obtineo ? 

8. Put into Latin: (1) How hard it is to tell when 
the fleet is likely to reach harbour. (2) Who is 
afraid of their not subduing the barbarians? (3) 
Let us inquire of the travellers their destination 
and their object in making such a long journey. 
(4) That is a proof of the superiority of water over 



1. Conjugate the present indicative and imperfect 
subjunctive of orior and potior. Give the meaning 
of exulo, vapulo, fisus sum, iuratus, pransus; and 
the future participle of orior, morior, moror, and 

2. Write down the principal parts of paveo, serpo, 
pango, incesso, molo, texo, meto, fallo, retundo, 
percello, amicio, saepio, sarcio, comperio, gaudeo, 
fateor, fatiscor, fido, and concino. 

3. Parse: quaesumus, visit, repostus, hauri, teres, 
subito, sitis, reris, deris, ventus, and conditus. 

4. Give the 1st person singular future indicative 
and imperfect subjunctive of the verbs from which 
these words come: questus, revinctus, pensum, 
mensae, discretus, aptus. 

5. Parse: ausit, fuat. Distinguish the uses of 
dicit and inquit. 

6. What is meant by a periphrastic tense? Give 

7. Translate: (a) Tu recte vivis si curas esse quod 
audis. (6) Altero oculo captus. (c) Quotus quisque 
est qui me amet. 

8. Derive: bruma, integer, humilis, debilis, naufra- 
gus, malo, supplex, comburo. 

9. Put into Latin: (1) As this is so, let us start. 

(2) As I was crossing the bridge I saw your father. 

(3) I will do as you bid. (4) The storm is not so 
great as I have seen before. 



1. Make and translate short sentences to illustrate 
the use of quisque, quis, quisquam, quivis, quidam, 
quicunque, aliquis, and quisquis. 

2. Distinguish between ambo, uter, uterque, and 

3. Form inceptive verbs from ardeo, tremo, durus; 
frequentative verbs from rogo, terreo; desiderative 
from edo, pario. Give the meaning and principal 
parts of the derivative verbs so formed. 

4. How many words are there in Latin for ' He 

5. What are anomalous verbs? Give an example. 

6. Give the 1st person singular of each tense 
indicative and subjunctive, and the infinitive and 
participle of coepi, odi, memini, with meanings. 
What is used as the passive of odi? 

7. Conjugate aio in the present indicative and 
subjunctive; inquam in the future and perfect 
indicative; fari in the present indicative. 

8. Put into oratio recta: (1) Dixit se si quid 
haberet daturum. (2) Dixit se si quid habuisset 
daturum fuisse. (3) Dixit se si quid audiisset 

9. Put into Latin: (1) He pretended to fly. (2) 
He was the last to reach the goal. (3) The longer 
you remain here the worse will the disease be. 
(4) He is too powerful to be resisted. 



1. Give the principal parts of occulo, aboleo, 
adolesco, ordior, pando, paciscor, compesco, per- 
petior, pendeo, fingo, ex-plaudo, -exposco, prandeo, 
psallo, pingo, rado, repo, salio (2), scisco, sculpo, 
scindo, sugo, taedet, tergeo, trudo, vergo. Where 
you can, give an English word derived from each 

2. What is the nominative plural of hie, aliquis, 
quis, vetus, sospes, ferax, pecus (2), lepus, vis, nos- 
tras; the dative and ablative singular of prior, 
tigris, Circe, Prusias, paries, dives, torrens; the geni- 
tive plural of vates, sedes, penates > parens, and 
mensis ? 

3. Compare: egenus, beneficus, posterus, vafer, 
novus, amabilis, pronus, ingens, ferus, promptus. 

4. Decline in full, domus; in the plural only, sus, 
quercus, penus, ater, acus, conatus, talentum; in the 
singular only, virus, alter, and solus. 

5. What sorts of words of the 2nd declension are 
feminine? Give six feminines and three neuters. 

6. Mention six nouns used in the singular only, 
six in the plural only. In what sense is the plural 
of vinum, aes, caro,. and nix used? 

7. Form adjectives from acer, nix, corpus, lacrima, 
servus, mare, Antium, Hispania, and navis. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) They sank six men-of-war 
before owning themselves beaten. (2) Ask him if 
he knows the hour of sunrise. (3) If you repent 
your crime you will be pardoned. 



1. Mention the genitive and ablative, singular 
and plural, of amphora, apis, auspex, ancile, caelicola, 
compes, iugerum, merx, nummus, vas (2), vir, vis. 

2. Give two or more meanings to each of the 
following words, marking the quantity where neces- 
sary: acer, fides, rei, solis, late, esse, securis, vadis, 
vites, voles, mensis, reliqui. 

3. What are the diminutives of homo, mulier, 
scutum, parvus, miser? What rule is there for the 
gender of diminutives? 

4. Write down the future participle of haurio, 
haereo, prodo, prodeo, patior, vincio, fero; and the 
first singular imperfect subjunctive of do, rapio, 
sentio, veto, posco, iaceo, iacio. 

5. What is peculiar in the conjugation of do? 
What is the rule for forming the perfect of re- 
duplicating verbs when compounded with a pre- 
position? What exceptions? 

6. Compound the following, and give their prin- 
cipal parts: con-quaero, con-laedo, con-uro, ab-iacio, 
de-cado, ob-caedo, ab-f ero, trans-iacio, per-lacio, sub- 

7. Put into Latin: (1) We have been waiting for 
three days. (2) I am convinced the enemy are at 
hand. (3) It is said that Homer was blind. (4) 
How many are there of you present? 



1. Mention some classes of adjectives which do 
not compare. Compare gracilis, dexter, potis, and 
the adjectives from infra, supra, post, and prae. 

2. Form adjectives from aurum, fermm, quercus, 
palus, loquor, mons, terra, facio, horreo. 

3. Give the Latin for the day of the month and 
year on which you are doing this paper, and explain 
how the days of the month were reckoned. 

4. Give the Latin for 48, 125, 85 a-piece, 300 
times, 2000th, 16 each. 

5. What is the Latin for: (a) Anyone can do this. 
(6) If anyone comes, (c) Don't tell anyone, (d) All 
have some talent, (e) Is there any news? 

6. Conjugate the imperative passive of rego, 
facio, capio; the present subjunctive of possum and 
malo; the future perfect of fero and nolo. Mark 
the quantity of the penultimate in fieri, possumus, 
velitis, haberem, sustuli, impuli, reditis. 

7. What is the English of redite, reddite, ferre, 
ferris, laturus, esse, esset, fi, fandi, oderis, iura? 

8. Put into Latin: (1) What you say is true. (2) 
Tell us what you think. (3) What o'clock is it? 
(4) They are not so great as they seem. 



1. What words and classes of words in the 1st and 
2nd declensions form their genitive plural in -um ? 

2. Explain the terms ' heteroclite ' and 'hetero- 
geneous' nouns, and give examples. What other 
forms are there of vesper, crater, diluvium, penus, 
praesepe ? 

3. Distinguish in meaning: cerasus, cerasum; 
malus, malum; pirus, pirum; and give the plural of 
locus, sibilus, Tartarus. 

4. Give the meaning in the singular and the 
plural of cera, castrum, finis, gratia, opera, pars, 
copia, sal, tabula, and epulum; and mention six 
words used in the singular only, six in the plural 

5. Write down the meaning, gender, genitive 
singular and plural of iecur, iter, supellex, iusiur- 
andum, and paterfamilias. 

6. What are the feminines corresponding to mas, 
gener, senex, verna, taurus, verres, haedus, socer, 
poeta, leo, Threx, Tros, Laco? 

7. What is meant by '-us pure'? Compare stren- 
uus, iniquus, diu, carus, igneus. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) After a protracted struggle 
our men repulsed the enemy. (2) The snow is too 
deep to admit of our walking. (3) Are you not 
ashamed to have spoken so often? 



1. Classify the different kinds of adverbs. 

2. How are adverbs formed from adjectives? 
Form adverbs from tutus, magnus, bonus, audax, 
celer, parvus, and compare them. Also from supplex, 
antiquus, omnis, gradus, alius, tot. 

3. Give the other degrees of comparison of ocius, 
nuper, satis, secus, proxime, intime, minus. 

4. Show with examples the difference between 
plus and magis. 

5. When would you translate 'no longer 'by non 
diutius, when by non iam? Put into Latin: This 
happens daily. The famine grows worse daily. 
We are daily expecting troops. Distinguish between 
rursus, iterum; iam, nunc; ante, antea, antequain; 
alias, alibi. 

6. What are correlatives ? Give instances. 

7. Decline in the singular, vitis, vitta, virtus, verus, 
virus, aer, aes, palus(2), aequor, equa; in the plural, 
partus, pars, portus, salus, saltus, aequus, aequor. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) Tell me where you are 
going. (2) Tell him to come here. (3) How glorious 
it is to die for one's country. (4) The enemy were 
advancing as quickly as possible. 



1. Give the gender, ablative singular, and genitive 
plural of crus, alvus, nemus, uber, pater, servitus. 

2. What are the full forms of amarit, ditiorem, 
norunt, repostus, denum talentum, explesti? 

3. Give the English of post nostram memoriam, 
suffragium ferre, receptui canere, sui arbitrii esse ; 
vox recti, praetoria navis, post captam urbem, 
e sententia navigare. 

4. Derive: negotium, intellego, obedio, cogo, nun- 
dinae, pergo, egregius, occido, acquire, praetor, 

5. Correct the folio wing: Ei hoc facientes poenam 
dabunt; Balbus et pater suus adsunt; num scis 
quod faciendum est? persuadeor ut hoc faciam; 
Roma perventa, nuntia quod accidit; and give 
reasons for any changes you make. 

6. What id the Latin for 'Caesar's murderers'? 
What does 'Caesaris interfectores' mean? 

7. Put into oratio recta: (Turnus videt) infractos 
esse adverse Marte Latinos, sua nunc promissa 

8. Put into Latin: (1) He said this to deceive us. 
(2) Ask him to come as soon as possible. (3) In the 
middle of the road stood a chariot. (4) His father 
and mine lived for some years together. 



1. What is the uncontracted form of nauta, surgo, 
bruma, prudens, salictum, agmen? What are the 
verbs corresponding to spatium, nix, pluvia, aqua, 
piscis, poena, sors, custos? 

2. Give the cardinal, ordinal, distributive, and 
adverbial numeral for 19, 68, 155, 2000, 827, 55,000. 
How did the Romans reckon the year? What is 
the Latin for B.C. 53; A.D. 153? 

3. Give the various meanings of ales, arce, miser- 
am, profecto, veteris, aggere, fides, serta, and sui. 
Translate: signa ferre, aliquem in oculis fero, iter 
ad urbem fert, ferre et agere, animus f ert, palmam 
ferre, virtutem prae se ferre, f ama eadem fert, dixisse 
fertur, sententiam ferre, rogationem ferre. 

4. Parse: osuros, semisse, oriundus, sustulere, des- 
titi, itur, ferient, avia, deris, infit, aurium. 

5. Put into oratio obliqua: 'Iniussu tuo, imper- 
ator, extra ordinem numquam pugnaverim, non si 
certam victoriam videam; si tu permittis, volo ego 
illi beluae ostendere me ex ea familia ortum quae 
Gallos ex rupe Tarpeia deiecit '. 

6. Put into Latin: (1) The battle of Cannae was 
fought on the 2nd of August, B.C. 216. (2) Who 
defeated the French on the 18th of June, 1815? 
(3) That house is half as large again as ours. 



1. What is a preposition? What is peculiar in 
the use of tenus and versus? Also of cum with 
pronouns ? 

2. Which prepositions govern both the accusa- 
tive and the ablative, and with what difference of 

3. Translate: ad unum, apud Livium, apud me 
multum valet, inter se diligunt, penes te hoc est, 
post hominum memoriam, per me licet tibi, omnes 
praeter me, secundum flumen, secundum pugnam, 
sub umbras venit, sub lucem, maior in dies, a dextro 
cornu, a senatu sto, de republica actum est, de in- 
dustria, e sententia, quid in nobis fecit? pro benevo- 
lentia tua, unus erat pro exercitu. 

4. Put into Latin: Under his leadership. I can 
scarcely speak for joy. I feel sure of this. From 
the front of the rampart. To deserve well of the 
state. From boyhood. At the court of Mithri- 
dates. One after another. Your kindness towards 
me. Next to heaven I rely on you. I pray you 
by the gods. Near Cannae. 

5. Is ' venit ad Romam ' good Latin ? How does 
it differ from 'venit Romam'? What is the rule for 
the use of prepositions with verbs of motion? 

6. Put into Latin: (1) They asked my advice as 
to whether in acting thus they would be consulting 
their own interests. (2) Added to this, he is elo- 
quent. (3) Old age is naturally rather talkative. 



1. Give the meaning, gender, genitive singular and 
plural of par, later, &cer, marmor, ardor, arbor ? 
f ulgur, pubes, cinis, Venus, f rigus, foedus, crus, grus, 
sol, pulmo. 

2. What is the accusative and the ablative singu- 
lar of sagax, minor, iuvenis, venter, hastile, rete, 
amans, servilis, hebes, prudens, supplex, caries? 

3. Mention some heteroclite adjectives and some 
that are defective in number or case. Decline in 
full plus. 

4. Give the comparative and superlative of hu- 
milis, utilis, maturus, liber, paratus. Mention four 
words to express 'last', and give the Latin for 
'You will be the last to arrive'. 

5. Add suffixes to ego, tu, suo, ruea, and decline 
in the singular istic. 

6. In what ways can ' reciprocal ' action be ex- 
pressed in Latin ? 

7. Write down the cardinal, ordinal, distributive, 
and adverbial numeral of 41, 78, 600, 22, 10,000, 

8. What is the Latin for 'one house' (aedes), 
'two forts', 'three letters', 'six children', 'twenty- 
one soldiers'? 

9. Put into Latin: (1) He thinks he can still run 
fast. (2) He punishes his children to improve their 
character. (3) "Where are you going to, pretty maid?" 
(4) "I'm going to milk the cows," she answered. 

(M450) C 



1. Parse in as many ways as possible the follow- 
ing words: vis, is, adeo, soli, amare, passus, cretus, 
serit, ora, f eris, vita, vites, nostras, menti, rati, f uga, 
libro, libris. 

2. Distinguish between ver&, vere; luc&, luce; 
comes, comes; plSga, plaga; veni, veni; populus, 
populus; manet, manet; mane, mane; occidit, occidit; 
f re turn, f return; condltus, condltus; lepores, lepores; 
pila, plla; paret, paret. 

3. What difference in meaning is there between 
armi and arma; dolus and dolor; opes and opem; 
auris, aura, aurum, ora; appellare and appellere; 
ergo, erga, and versus? 

4. Distinguish between quattuor, quater, quater- 
nus, quartus, quadrus, quartanus, quadrimus, quad- 

5. Write short sentences, and translate them, to 
illustrate the difference between quisquam, quisquis, 
aliquis, quivis, quisque, uter, uterque. 

6. What difference of meaning is there between 
'nescio quis loquitur' and 'nescio quis loquatur'? 

7. Put into Latin in as many ways as possible: 
(1) The general sent officers to explore the neigh- 
bourhood. (2) The consul entered the city without 
being addressed by anyone. (3) He never saw me 
without laughing. 



1. Parse in as many ways as possible and give 
the meanings of cane, ferri, generi, memores, orbi, 
pugnis, specula, tela, veniam, salis, satis, ara, ero, 

2. Distinguish between seni, seni; vado, vado; 
reduces, reduces; nota, nota; misere, misere; latere, 
later e; acer, acer; ca"nes, canes; comas, comas; egere, 
egere; levis, laevus, levis; labor, labor. 

3. What is the difference in meaning between 
mors and nex; cruor and sanguis; callidus and 
calidus; inimicus and hostis; patria, terra, and rus; 
egeo and careo; cogito, existimo, and puto; metuo, 
timeo, and vereor ? 

4. What is the Latin for 'a mortal wound', 'to 
ascend the throne', 'to prove victorious', 'to express 
one's sentiments', 'the house in the marsh', 'the 
word pleasure', 'the man at the helm'? 

5. Distinguish the use and meaning of antea, ante, 
antequam; nubo and duco; libertus and libertinus; 
alius and alter; dicta dare and verba dare. 

6. Give the derivation of regio, arvum, egregius, 
exul, bruma, ambitus. 

7. Put into oratio obliqua: 'Ne ob earn rem aut tuae 
magno opere virtuti tribueris aut nos despexeris'. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) The crafty Antony stirred 
up the common people. (2) When are they likely 
to come ? I would say if I knew. (3) He is worthy 
to be loved. (4) I was not the man to act unjustly. 



1. Decline in the singular gener, miles, coniunx, 
celer; and in the plural mare, nox, vas, dives. Give 
the genders of arbor, fides, honor, orbis, virtus, as, 
finis, margo, legio. 

2. Compare: cito, facilis, frugi,grandis,prope,tener. 

3. Decline in the singular quilibet, alius; in the 
plural ego, alter. 

4. Write out the perfect indicative of prodo; the 
pluperfect subjunctive of nolo; the imperative active 
of duco. Give the principal parts of arcesso, augeo, 
proficiscor, retineo, veto. 

5. Parse: laberis, vellet, usam, oderit, nosse, fili. 

6. What is the construction of verbs of threaten- 
ing? Explain the term 'ablative absolute'. Give 
examples of each. 

7. Explain the construction of: (a) Parcere victis 
est victoris. (b) lit mulieri servitum. (c) Os um- 
erosque deo similis. 

8. Correct the errors in: (1) Imperatus sum hoc 
facere. (2) Si eum vides, quaere si hie venturus 
est. (3) Gaius et suus frater non sunt digni credi. 

9. Put into Latin: (1) I sent some men to ask for 
money. (2) I fear I shall not see him. (3) Go 
home: after so many and so great labours you need 
rest. (4) Let us ask him why he did not tell the 



1. Decline in the singular lacus, merces, ebur; in 
the plural vir, salus, volnus. Give the ablative 
plural of filia and coniux, and the gender of nemus, 
humus, piscis, seges, crinis. 

2. Write down the other degrees of comparison 
of acer, iuvenis, plurimum, nequam, humiliter, 

3. Decline throughout all genders iste, celer in 
the singular; par, quidam in the plural. 

4. Write out the imperative of sum; the present 
indicative passive of fero; and give the first per- 
son singular perfect indicative active and the supine 
of lavo, quaero, reperio, cognosce. 

5. Parse the following words, giving the principal 
parts of each verb, the gender and genitive singular 
of each noun: ablatam, trivere, foedere, inquitis, 
alas, alas, feris (2). 

6. What cases are found with miser eor, rogo, 
accuso, indulgeo, potior, indignus? Illustrate. 

7. Translate (explaining the syntax of italicized 
words): (1) Quot annos Athenis habitavit? (2) 
Haec sibi curae esse respondit. (3) Scisne quanti 
hortos emeriti (4) Auxilii ferendi causa pro- 

8. Put into Latin: (1) To be happy we have need 
of virtue. (2) The next day he repented his crime. 
(3) Tell me whom you saw at Comum. (4) Caesar 
is too strong to be defeated. 



1. Decline in the singular dies, aper, onus; in the 
plural nix, ordo, genu. Give the dative plural of 
vis and eques, and the gender of cor, virtus, virus, 
amnis, robur. 

2. Compare utilis, diu, aeger, male, infra, benevo- 

3. Decline in full aliquis; celeber in the singular; 
duo, atrox in the plural. 

4. Parse (giving the principal parts of each verb, 
the gender and genitive singular of each noun): 
aperi, manui, subegistis, memento, velis, velis. 

5. How are verbs that govern the dative used in 
the passive ? Mention three verbs that govern the 
genitive, the dative, and the ablative respectively. 

6. What cases are used with coram, tenus, prae? 
Make short sentences to illustrate. 

7. Translate and explain the construction of the 
italicized words: (1) Terribiles visu formae. (2) 
Velim has litteras scribas. (3) Edocet quot viro- 
rum morte constiterit victoria. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) He was followed by fifteen 
slaves, all of whom he had captured a few days 
before. (2) He called Balbus and warned him not 
to stay at Rome. (3) When shall you and I enjoy 
leisure again? 



1. Give (a) the genitive singular of ales, servitus, 
pauper; (b) the ablative plural of dea, gurges, 
laurus; (c) the comparative and superlative of 
audacter, gracilis, sapiens. 

2. Distinguish between the meanings of quisquis 
and quisque; opem and opes; paro, pario, and pareo; 
queror and quaero. 

3. Explain the construction of: (a) Cave sis niemor 
eius virtutum. (b) Sol est multis partibus maior 
luna. (c) Exercitu tria millia passuum progressus 

4. Parse: egeris, ablato, seniori, memento, tene, 
serius, torques. 

5. Give the principal parts of gigno, tango, orior, 
cresco, coquo, nequeo, repello. 

6. Write out the present subjunctive of suadeo; 
the future indicative of morior; the three participles 
of reperio. 

7. What are the meanings and constructions of 
miseret, rogo, licet, fretus? Give examples. 

8. Explain with examples: cognate accusative, 
ablative absolute, consecutive clause, ethic dative, 
dative of person judging. 

9. Put into Latin: (1) Tell me why you have 
come. (2) I hope you will spare your son. (3) 
You should look before you leap. (4) Are you not 
ashamed of the crime you have committed? 



1. Give (a) the genitive singular of compos, alius, 
Aeneas, praeceps; (6) genitive plural of comes, 
domus, urbs; (c) comparative and superlative of 
diu, providus, saluber. 

2. Distinguish between the meanings of littera 
and litterae; gratia and gratiae; aedes (singular) and 
aedes (plural); culpa, scelus, crimen; omnes, cunctus, 
uni versus, totus; puto, cogito; lacertus, lacerta; hor- 
ror, timor. 

3. Decline: paterfamilias, iste, ambo, quisque, and 

4. Parse: quemquam, patere, securim, solvere, orbi. 

5. Give the principal parts of tollo, frango, sono, 
nolo, soleo. Conjugate the present subjunctive of 
malo; future indicative of utor; imperfect subjunc- 
tive of fero, fio, eo, and iacio. 

6. Explain the case or mood of: (a) Quid mihi 
Celsus agit? (b) Mutare pacem bello. (c) Nihil 
est quod tarn miseros facial quam impietas. (d) 
Solito maior numerus. 

7. Illustrate by short sentences the construction 
of refert, coram, quamvis, quippe. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) The temple is two miles 
away from the city. (2) Wait till I come. (3) He 
replied that he would have gone away unless I had 
forbidden him. 



1. Give the gender and genitive plural of compes, 
socrus, iuger, heros, mus, scriba; the accusative 
singular and nominative plural of ipse, quivis, celer; 
the comparative and superlative of providus, con- 
stans, post, dexter. 

2. Give perfect, infinitive, and supine of veneo, 
iuro, statuo, teneo, dissentio; future simple of fio; 
present subjunctive of reor; and all the infinitives 
and participles of utor. 

3. Parse and give the meanings of f erris, verberes, 
ieris, latere, moriere, torque, and dedit. 

4 How do you express in Latin wish, quality, 
agent, comparison? Make short sentences in illus- 

5. What are the meanings and constructions of 
the following words: prae, consulo, quisquam, licet, 
num, minor, persuadeo? 

6. Give instances of desiderative, inceptive, fre- 
quentative verbs, and explain their formation. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) By the laws of Sulla no 
tribune was allowed to become consul. (2) I am 
afraid you will repent of your folly too late. (3) 
Which of the two women do you love? I should 
prefer to marry neither. 



1. Give the gender and genitive of pinus, supel- 
lex, vim en, lepus, abies, socer, bos, latus; the com- 
parative of nequam, exiguus, velox, magnopere; 
the superlative of malus, aeger, multus, facile. 

2. Give the perfect infinitive and supine of pasco, 
tono, tollo, haurio, tondeo; the 2nd singular in all 
tenses of nolo; the 2nd singular imperfect indica- 
tive and subjunctive of possum and potior. 

3. Parse and give the English of prodest, ineunte, 
utrivis, effossi, scelere, tribui, novi, nube. 

4. Give three examples each of nouns: (1) used 
only in the plural; (2) changing their meaning in 
the plural; (3) defective in case. 

5. Show by examples the cases governed by 
desum, poenitet, potior, opus est, celo, circumdo. 

6. When do cum, dum, and qui take the sub- 
junctive? Construct sentences in illustration. 

7. Translate into Latin: (1) He begged that the 
enemy might be spared. (2) He says he will return 
home. (3) He hoped that Carthage would have 
been destroyed. (4) It cannot be denied that he 
has used his time foolishly. 



1. Give the ablative singular, genitive plural, and 
gender of vis, vir, mare, miles, nix, facinus, iubar, 
deses, mas. 

2. What is the comparative of malus, pulcher, 
parvus, and the superlative of similis, inferus, 
multus, velociter? 

3. Give the perfect infinitive and supine of fingo, 
scindo, tero, iubeo, pello, sono; the 1st person imper- 
fect subjunctive of eo and volo; the 2nd person 
singular imperative of ingredior, dico, efficio. 

4. Show by examples the cases governed by im- 
pero, caveo, placeo, iuvo, noceo, consulo, plenus, sup- 
pedito, dignus, tenus. 

5. Parse and give the English of oblitus, iaceret, 
diutius, querar, conferti, ferite, noceri, soceri, pares. 

6. Distinguish between is and ille, qui and quis, 
alius and alter, vendo and veneo, severis and seVeris, 
callis and calles, fasti and fastus. 

7. What cases are used to express time and place ? 
Give examples. 

8. Translate into Latin: (1) They said nobody 
would be able to help him. (2) What does it matter 
to you what harm he does himself ? (3) The Volsci 
lost the best city they had. (4) I am not the man 
to do this. 



1. Give the genitive singular of filius, nix, cinis, 
sus, totus, superstes; the genitive plural of mons, 
nummus, pauper; the comparative of senex, magno- 
pere; and the superlative of facilis, mutus, novus, 

2. Decline vulgus, dives, tres, vetus, olus, dos, 
arundo, Apollo, vervex. 

3. Parse: inquam, quoque, parsum, humi, iure- 
iurando, deme. 

4. (a) Give the meaning and principal parts of 
tango, audeo, vivo, iuvo, comperio, operio, tego, sterno, 
aboleo, sino, cieo. (6) Conjugate the present sub- 
junctive of volo, imperfect subjunctive of patior, 
present indicative of possum, and give all the tenses 
of the infinitive of fero. 

5. Construct short sentences to show how you 
can express in Latin (a) purpose, (6) time during 
which, (c) price. 

6. What construction do you use with oportet, 
vereor, dum, sub, posthabeo, circumdo? 

7. Classify the chief uses of the dative case. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) He is too sensible to do 
that. (2) It is now sixty years since he died. (3) I 
hope he will go away before I return. (4) Would I 
had been able to help him ! 



1. Give the first person plural future and imper- 
fect indicative of possum, gero, pereo, saevio, oro, 
queror, sperno. 

2. Give the genitive singular and plural of nubes, 
parens, opus, cassis, grates, quercus, sermo. 

3. Write out the singular of is, celer, domus, 

4. Parse and give the meaning of nivem, ele- 
phantis, sceleri, paludi, doli, mori, quoque, clavi, 
crevi, rueris, palus, semisse, talis. 

5. Give an example of an impersonal verb, a 
deponent verb, a defective verb, a semi- deponent 
verb, and an intransitive verb. 

6. Give examples of the construction of quin, 
dum, ne, poenitet, interest, licet, pertinet. 

7. Write short sentences to illustrate the differ- 
ence in use and meaning between post, postea, and 
postquam; ibi, ubi, unde, and quo; hie, hue, and hinc; 
quantus, qualis, and quot. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) If he were made consul, I 
should go to Capua. (2) Unless you had forgiven 
me I should never have returned. (3) I asked her 
to come when she could. (4) I will send the biggest 
book I have. 



1. Write down (a) the gender and genitive singular 
of seges, silex, career, tibicen, olor; (6) comparative 
and superlative of sacer, dives, saepe, velox; (c) prin- 
cipal parts of corripio, sterno, texo, tollo, metior; 
(d) cases governed by super, instar, circum, ob. 

2. Give the Latin for March 15, 1897; where do 
you come from? how old are you? blind of an eye; 
it is said that he is a sailor; the battle of Cannae; 
many men, many minds. 

3. Explain and illustrate by examples (a) dativus 
commodi, (6) accusative of duration of time, (c) in- 
ceptive verb, (d) reflexive pronoun. 

4. Give with examples the usual constructions of 
muto, ignosco, moneo, desino, caveo. 

5. Explain heres ex asse, consul suffectus, ver 
sacrum, dies nefastus, triarii, appellatio, lustrum. 

6. Parse in as many ways as possible: ora, vis, 
auri, latere, mane, vere, leges, indices, teres, parti, 
salis, nares. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) He ordered the sailors not 
to go so near the shore. (2) I hope to be able to 
accomplish the work. (3) The load was too heavy 
to bear. (4) Pompey must spare Metellus. 



1. Give (a) the nominative singular of corda, 
heroum, ora, grandine; (6) dative singular of nux, 
iecur, porticus, Aeneas; (c) genitive plural of lex, 
dies, vis, animal; (d) ablative plural of equa, duplex, 
iugerum, princeps; (e) gender of grex, laurus, Hadria, 
caro, comes. 

2. Give the principal parts of tondeo, adicio, con- 
tundo, seco, perfero, surgo, concino, repo, sperno. 

3. What is the Latin for 18 days, 5000 men, 
they hate one another, the fifth hour, three apples 
apiece, whichever, my own wish? 

4. Show, with an example of each, the case re- 
quired after a verb of teaching, an adjective of want, 
prope, piget, and the mood after quamvis, postea- 
quam, persuadeo, licet, veto. 

5. Write a full account of the uses of dum, quin, 

6. Explain the expressions vir consularis, tri- 
clinium, praetor peregrinus, tribuni militum, de caelo 

7. Put into Latin: (1) He was his own enemy 
rather than mine. (2) She could not tell me whether 
my brother had favoured the party of Caesar or 
not. (3) In spite of your opposition he was elected 
consul yesterday. 



1. Write down (a) the gender and genitive singular 
of incus, cos, nix, crus, arcus, latro; (6) meaning and 
comparative of audacter, iuvenis, dives, hilaris; 
(c) principal parts of fingo, meto, torreo, aufero, 
pario, tero, nanciscor, accedo. 

2. Give the Latin for in my power, as far as the 
knees, I am believed, three camps, at nightfall, three 
times, Dec. 10th. 

3. Give one clear instance to explain the con- 
struction of impero, rogo, quippe qui, damno, expers, 
oportet, spero, impero. 

4. In what ways may (1) a purpose, (2) a wish, 
be expressed in Latin? Give instances. 

5. Explain the following words and phrases 
tribus praerogativa, intercedere, supplicatio, rostra, 
novus homo, latus clavus. 

6. Parse the following words ancipiti, vellera, 
solius, ovilibus, coalueris, accingi, perlegas, mares. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) This burden is far heavier 
than I can bear. (2) It is not all up with us yet: 
let those laugh that win. (3) There were some who 
thought that the enemy might have been resisted 
before he reached the walls. (4) He is an object 
of universal hatred. 



1. Write down (a) the gender and genitive singular 
of caespes, dos, acus, cortex, nauta, pelagus, genus, 
and caro; (6) meaning and comparative of diu, 
rapax, munificus, vetus; (c) principal parts of lavo, 
sepelio, ordior, frango, caedo, gigno, meto; (d) mean- 
ing of and cases governed by erga, apud, prae, penes. 

2. Give the Latin for any you will, three apiece, 
July 20th, 4000 soldiers, by the gods, unsuccessfully, 
in my opinion, towards evening. 

3. Give instances to show the meaning and con- 
struction of poenitet, potior, circumdo, quisquam, 

4. Classify, with instances, the various meanings 
of ut and quam. 

5. Explain the following words and phrases: 
libros adire, atrium, lectisternium, sportula, Tulli- 
anum, provocatio. 

6. Turn into oratio obliqua: 'Habetis libertatem, 
Campani, quam petistis: foro medio, videntibus 
vobis, ego vinctus ad mortem rapior. Ite obviam 
Hannibali, exornate urbem.' 

7. Put into Latin: (1) Do not do this, for if you 
did it you would be wrong. (2) What have I done 
to deserve so great a punishment as this ? (3) They 
want to persuade me it is my interest to say who 
can be believed. 

(M450) D 



1. Decline in the singular humus, iter, radix; in 
the plural res, frigus, nepos. Write down the 
dative plural of comes and bos; and the gender of 
pestis, rnel, marmor, ignis, tellus. 

2. Give the other degrees of comparison of hu- 
milis, idoneus, proxime, liber, graviter, posterus. 

3. Decline in the singular alius, ater; in the 
plural idem, dives. 

4. Write out the present subjunctive of nolo; the 
imperfect subjunctive of fio. Give the 1st person 
perfect indicative of cresco, proficiscor, mico, tendo. 

5. Parse, giving the principal parts of verbs, the 
gender and genitive of nouns: quaesivero, sustulis- 
tis, reges, reges, iureiurando, coepisse. 

6. What constructions are used with verbs of 
fearing? What cases are used with suadeo, utor, 
taedet, polliceor? 

7. Explain the construction of: (1) Consul, ne 
segnis sederet, quinque millia militum ad urbem 
oppugnandam misit. (2) Respondit Fulvius se, 
quae consule absente acta essent, fama iam audi- 

8. Put into Latin: (1) There is nothing to hinder 
you from speaking the truth. (2) He was accused 
of theft and very nearly condemned. (3) We must 
spare the man who has saved our city. 



1. Give the gender and dative singular of arctus, 
nurus, mus; vocative and ablative singular of 
domus and liber; genitive plural of canis and prin- 
ceps; and the other degrees of comparison of nequam, 
senex, celeber, tutissime, audacter. 

2. Give the first person singular perfect indica- 
tive and imperfect subjunctive active and the 
supine of fero, nolo, perspicio, rapio, sino, suadeo, 
sustineo, texo, veto, vincio. 

3. (a) Give the meaning of quisquis, quivis, ali- 
quis, quisquam. Construct and translate sentences 
in illustration. (6) Translate: (1) He was the first 
to arrive. (2) A ditch four feet broad. (3) He 
takes from Cicero what he gives to Caesar. 

4. Translate, remarking on the construction of 
words in italics: (1) Quanti emptum est? Parvo. 
(2) Caesar Aeduos frumentum quod polliciti essent 
flagitabat. (3) Suo cuique iudicio utendum est. 
(4) Suos hortatur ut fortem animum gererent. 

5. What compounds of cado have a supine, and 
what is their supine? What is the perfect of com- 
pounds of cano? 

6. Put into Latin: (1) I saw him the day before 
he died. (2) You ask me what advice I give. (3) 
I have no doubt he will come. (4) The later the 



1. Decline in the singular dies, aper, onus; in the 
plural nix, ordo, genu. Give the dative plural of 
vis, eques, and the gender of cor, virtus, virus, 
amnis, robur. 

2. Write down the other degrees of comparison 
of utilis, diu, aeger, male, imus, benevolus. 

3. Decline in the singular aliquis, celeber; in the 
plural duo, atrox. 

4. Write out the imperfect subjunctive of sequor, 
the perfect subjunctive active of fero, and give the 
1st person perfect indicative of condo, fingo, audeo, 

5. Parse aperi, manui, subegistis, memento, velis, 
velis, conferti, insignis. 

6. Mention three verbs which are used with the 
ablative, three with the genitive. Show how verbs 
that take a dative are used in the passive. 

7. Translate and explain the construction of the 
words in italics: (1) Terribilis auditu sonus. (2) 
Triste lupus stabulis. (3) Illud animal quern vocamus 
hominem. (4) Edocet quanto usuifuerit res nostris. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) He was followed by fifteen 
slaves, all of whom he had captured a few days 
before. (2) He called Balbus and warned him not 
to stay at Rome. (3) I was afraid of his being 
angry with me. (4) When shall you know if you 
have obtained the command? 



1. Give the gender and genitive singular of domus, 
tus, deus, career, carbasus, mos, ordo, abies. 

2. Write down the perfect and supine active of 
colo, maneo, pando, surgo, pareo, veneo, laedo, deleo. 

3. Translate (noting instances of ambiguous 
meaning): uti, usui, utri, fandi, passus, indices, vires, 
vapulare, verbera. 

4. Give and translate Latin sentences illustrating 
the uses of quamvis and quamquam; the meanings 
of clam and prae; the cases governed by coram and 

5. Translate (explaining the construction of the 
words in italics): (a) Id se fatetur dolere, quod me 
caruerit. (6) Nolo cautum quod mentiendo sit caven- 
dum. (c) Stultis minitabar nisi didicissent. 

6. Turn into oratio obliqua: 'Vestrum iter, 
milites Romani, omnia saecula laudibus ferent: sed 
ad conspiciendam virtutem luce opus est, nee vos 
digni estis quos in castra reduces nox tegat. Hie 
lucem quieti opperiamur.' 

7. Put into Latin: (1) If to-morrow you dislike 
(poenitet) this place, you will move. (2) I begged 
him not to hurt anyone. (3) We will strive to do 
good to as many as possible. 


1. Give the gender and genitive singular of ven- 
ter, rete, nux, ebur, silex, caespes, merces, olus, abies. 

2. Compare fertilis, dubius, prope, frugi, taeter, 

3. Write down the following: (a) 3rd person plural 
imperfect subjunctive of nequeo. (6) 2nd person 
plural imperative of memini. (c) 1st person singu- 
lar future perfect indicative of capesso. (d) Future 
participle of odi. (e) 2nd singular imperfect sub- 
junctive of mereor. 

4. What constructions follow egeo, taedet, abdo, 
posco? In what constructions may intransitive 
verbs take an accusative? 

5. Illustrate the uses of ut and ne after verbs of 

6. Put into idiomatic Latin the italicized words 
in: (a) He was tried before a judge. (b) The day 
after I left you. (c) This book is the same as that. 
(d) He came to the aid of his friend, (e) We have 
too little faitfi. (/) Have you seen Rome? Yes. 
(g) Is this true? Not at all. (h) How few there 
are who do right ! 

7. Point out some of the chief differences between 
the use of the infinitive in Latin and in English. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) We once feared we should 
not live; we now fear to live. (2) Would we had 
either been silent or had spoken the truth ! (3) So 
far was he from repenting of his crime that he 
actually boasted of it. 



1. Decline together foedum scelus, acer senex, 
annosa quercus. 

2. Give the genders of alvus, arbor, collis, fons, 
f rons, ordo, porticus, pelagus, sal, ver. 

3. Write down the principal parts of aboleo, 
caveo, cubo, divide, figo, fingo, refercio, vinco, and 

4. Distinguish between venis, venis; terSs, teres; 
populus, populus; vires, vires; voces, voces. What 
is the meaning of familia, honestus, occupare, pro- 
babilis, and securus in classical authors? 

5. Illustrate by examples the use of aut and vel, 
qui and quis, ut and quo, sive and utrum. 

6. Explain the cases in Tres viri reipublicae 
constituendae; cuius es sapientiae, non erras; fies 
nobilium tu quoque fontium; genas lacrimis per- 
fusa decoras. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) He resolved to send 10,000 
picked men to attack the town. (2) I prefer a 
hundred deaths to such dishonour. (3) The hill 
was surrounded by a ditch more than 50 feet wide. 
(4) It makes a great difference whether you act 
deliberately or on the spur of the moment. (5) He 
only deserves to be praised who prefers duty to 
expediency. (6) He did not tell me when he would 
return, but promised to write. 



1. Decline throughout the singular: vas (2), os (2), 
aes, tus, paries, palus (m.), pecus (.), marking the 
quantity of doubtful syllables. 

2. Write down (a) the supine in -um of ab- 
scindo, haereo; (6) the present infinitive, active and 
passive, of arcesso; (c) the present infinitive of pro- 
gredior; (d) the future participle of vincio. 

3. Name three verbs which have a perfect form 
but a present meaning. What meaning has the 
pluperfect of such verbs? 

4. What are the different ways of expressing 
purpose in Latin? Is the infinitive ever used to 
express purpose? 

5. Explain the different meanings of per, prae, 
pro, both when used simply and when used in com- 

6. In how many ways can the English 'should' 
be rendered in Latin? Write short sentences to 
illustrate your answer. 

7. In what way are the following defective: 
aio, inquam, nemo, odi? How would you reader 
' I am hated by you ' ? 

8. Put into Latin: (1) He is more fool than 
knave. (2) I would not give that for his opinion! 
(3) He is not the man I took him for. (4) He said 
he would have come had he not been prevented. 



1. Decline together in the singular utra domus, 
quodque iusiurandum; in the plural pernix avis, 
vis iuvenilis. 

2. Give the principal parts of the verbs from 
which the following coine: emensus, refertus, re- 
fixus, tortus, perculsus, peremptus. 

3. Distinguish the senses of aequus, aequalis; 
arma, armus; malus, malus; oblltus, oblitus; parum, 
parvum; talis, talis. 

4. Translate: (a) He could not speak for grief. 
(6) I am setting out for Athens, (c) Thirst for 
gold, (d) To die for one's country, (e) He sold 
his country for gold. 

5. Correct all the faults in the following: (a) 
Indignus est qui credatur. (6) Veni ad Romam ut 
aedem Ciceronis videam. (c) Rogavi quantos fa- 
mulos (how many servants) cum se adduxerat. 
(d) Nil mihi ref ert ubi asinum perdidistis. 

6. Construct sentences introducing (a) an imper- 
sonal passive verb, (6) a double dative, (c) a geni- 
tive of quality, (d) an accusative of respect, (e) an 
ablative of price. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) It is not everyone who 
can face danger with calmness. (2) Brutus denied 
that he was ashamed of having killed Caesar. (3) 
Would that I had died before seeing the city 
burnt ! (4) It is hard to understand how it happens 
that so few are content with their lot. 



1. Give the present and the perfect infinitive of 
assentior, metior, paciscor, expergiscor, experior; 
and the perfect indicative and supine of ardeo, 
lavo, pasco, sero, vincio. 

2. What is the meaning in classical Latin of 
aspiro, compello, mortalis, opprimo, persona, honos, 
succedo, sollennis? 

3. Quote or construct sentences to illustrate the 
difference between amoenus and iucundus, nitidus 
and splendidus, careo and egeo, simulo and dis- 

4. Translate: (a) He made a speech without 
persuading the jury. (6) Hardly a day passes 
without his visiting me. (c) He was condemned 
without being heard. (d) Condemned without 
cause. (e) He returned without effecting his 
purpose. (/) He stood without the walls. 

5. Explain the construction of (a) Vade salu- 
tatum Perillam. (6) Is est qui reipublicae potius 
quam sibi consulat. What would consulit mean? 
(c) Vidi quantus erat fusum tellure cruenta. 
What would esset fusiis mean ? 

6. Put into Latin: (1) He returned to his camp at 
Gergovia on the 7th July. (2) He is too kind to 
vent his anger on the helpless. (3) The further 
you sail from England the nearer you get to France. 
(4) The more our pleasures cost us the more anx- 
ious we are to purchase them. 



1. Write down the English, gender, and nomin- 
ative plural of acus, collis, calix, dens, mons, 
pelagus, pes, porticos, rudens, sidus. 

2. What is the meaning of the singular and the 
plural of copia, sal, hortus, littera, opera, pars? 

3. What constructions are used with emo, pendo, 
decet, iuvat, libet, propter, sub, and super? 

4. Distinguish (giving examples) the uses of 
utrum and sive, ne and ut non, utinam with pre- 
sent and with past subjunctive. 

5. Translate the following: (a) No day passed 
without his coming. (6) Instead of being true, it is 
not even possible, (c) Instead of listening, he was 
singing, (d) What is history but fable? (e) I can- 
not but weep. (/) He all but expired. 

6. Write notes on the syntax of (a) Sunt qui non 
habeant, est qui non curat habere. (b) Urbem quam 
statuo vestra est. (c) Animos nil magnae laudis 
egentes. (d) Hoc mihi cordi est. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) I hope the news will prove 
true, but I rather think it is false. (2) "Who 
knows," he used to ask, " whether death is a sleep 
or the beginning of another life?" (3) I am tired 
of speaking so often on so trite a subject. 



1. Write down the dative plural of dea, eques, 
seges; the ablative singular of turbo, felix, robur; 
the gender of acus, career, myrtus, pecten. 

2. Give the perfect indicative and the future 
participle of retundo, sino, mulceo, concino, cogo, 
como, exquiro, redeo, tendo, pingo. 

3. State the distinction in use between the two 

4. What are the ordinary constructions of gnarus, 
dignus, opus est, interest, posco, minari, abundo? 

5. Give the cardinal, ordinal, and distributive 
numerals from 1 to 10; and the same for 20, 30, 
300, 600, 1000. 

6. Correct the following if necessary: (a) Ne 
me tua facinora cela. (6) Novum carmen poscor. 
(c) Aedes struxit ad colendum deos. (d) Opus fuit 
Hirtio convento. (e) Cras ad rus proficiscor. 

7. Explain the case in: (1) Sedet aeternumque 
sedebit. (2) Quid tibi hanc tactio est? (3) Sese 
Caesari ad pedes proiecerunt. (4) Me libente eripies 
mihi hunc errorem. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) Twice two are four. (2) 
Gaius expected to be heir to the whole property, 
but he was heir to three-fourths only. (3) The 
issue of the war was different from what had 
been expected. (4) The general was advised not 
to begin the engagement. 



1. Give the gender and genitive singular and 
plural of obses, merces, abies, lis, semis, pulvis, anas, 

2. Give the nominative plural and the meaning 
singular and plural of opera, balneum, castrum, 
locus, carbasus. 

3. Compare senex, nequarn, frugi, malevolus, 
dives, nobilis, pigre, facile. 

4. Write down the third person plural of all 
tenses of adeo, volo, fio, edo, aufero. 

5. Mark quantities of libido, diffidens, consulo, 
coepere, fieri, incedet, arbores, auctore, abiuro, colloco. 
Distinguish paret, paret; liber, liber; placet, placet; 
sedet, sedet; cedo, cedo. 

6. Show by examples the use of quominus, potissi- 
mum, seu, neu, ceu, utique. 

7. Explain the case in (1) Agebat consilio', 
(2) Mollitia animi officia deserunt: the mood and 
case in (3) Me caecum qui haec ante non viderim; 
(4) Dum ne tibi molestus videar, non laboro. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) It was of great importance 
to Pompey that corn should be sold cheap. (2) It 
seems he was born at Tusculum and lived many 
years at Syracuse. (3) Whether he intended it or 
not he has harmed the Conservative party. (4) 
You may give the book to any one of the boys, 
only see that he takes it home at once. 



1. Translate: Res ei male cesserunt; familiar! ter 
uti aliquo; navem appellere; gratias agere, gratiam 
habere; ubi terrarum est? vir trium litterarum; res 
repetundae; aeger animi; in sententiam ire; con- 
sertis manibus; eo impudentiae venit; praesto esse. 

2. What is the Latin for Lost to shame; to bring 
an action against a man; to repeal a law; how few 
there are who...; wholesale slaughter; many times 
bigger; so far from loving I hate him; gentlemen 
of the jury; to hire; to put to death without a 
trial; to borrow money; to go bankrupt; to take to 
politics; to go to the Bar; statesmen; a paragon 
of virtue; to achieve one's purpose; the tongue of 

3. Give the meaning of soli (2), soli; leges (2), 
leges; suls, suis; teretis, teretis, teritis; territis, 
terretis; mole, mole; mtfra, mora, more; bidens, 
tridens; vita (2), vite; florS, flore; manes (2), manes; 
sails, salis; mentis, mentis; iacet, iaciet; teges, teges. 

4. 'Aio te, Aeacida, Romanes vincere posse'; 
'nobis parentibus est parendum'. Write again so 
as to remove the ambiguity. 

5. Put into Latin: (1) The murder of Caesar 
proved to be the destruction of freedom. (2) Would 
that he had proved a juster king! (3) What was I 
to do? I had nothing to give. 



1. Give rules for composite agreement (i.e. where 
a word agrees with more than one other word) as 
to number and gender. 

2. What is the Latin for (a) Both the man and 
the woman are good; (6) Gaius and Balbus were 
good men; (c) the oak and the elm are tall by 
nature; (d) honours and riches are to be sought 

3. In what person is the verb when its subjects 
are of different persons? Translate: You and I 
were present. He and you were present. He and 
I were present. 

4. Does the relative always agree with its ante- 
cedent in gender? What is the Latin for Thebes, 
which was the capital of Boeotia? 

5. Point out and explain peculiarities of agree- 
ment in: (a) Magna pars vulnerati sunt. (6) Capita 
coniurationis caesi sunt. (c) Ipse dux cum aliquot 
principibus capiuntur. (d) ludice, quo nosti, 

6. Translate: facere minimi, fac eum potuisse, 
facere ludos, dictum ac factum; si quid eo factum 
sit, quam spem habeas? 

7. Put into Latin: (1) My sheep are bigger than 
those of the farmers. (2) Those wishing to be 
present give in their names. (3) I have acted thus 
for your sake alone. (4) I am giving you the only 
thing I have. 



1. Define a complex sentence. Name the three 
kinds of subordinate clauses with an example of 

2. Classify the following clauses: (1) Rogavit 
quis essem. (2) (Fieri potest) ut creetur consul. 
(3) (Timeo) ne moriar. (4) (Demens est) qui hoc 
facit. (5) (Demens est) qui hoc faciat. (6) Si 
potero (faciam). 

3. Give instances of seven different kinds of 
adverbial clause. 

4. Explain the difference between ne, nonne, and 
num in questions. 

5. What particles are used in alternative ques- 
tions? What is the Latin for (1) Do you know 
this? (2) You know this, don't you? (3) You 
don't know this, do you? 

6. Show by examples that the relative pronoun 
often does the work of a conjunction. 

7. Give the gender, meaning, and genitive singular 
of satelles, praeses, pollex, stercus, and pagus; and 
the meaning and principal parts of velo, urgeo, 
algeo, molior, delitesco and struo. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) Come here and see how 
many have been destroyed. (2) They all lay with 
their faces to the foe and with a fierce expression. 
(3) Whether he is a Roman or a foreigner he shall 
not command us. 



1. Define ' case '. Explain and give instances of 
the accusative of extent, and the cognate accusa- 

2. What is the origin of the future infinitive 
passive, as in ' audio multos interf ectum iri ' ? How 
else might the same meaning be expressed ? 

3. What verbs govern a double accusative, and 
what is their construction in the passive? 

4. Explain the use of the accusative in the 
following: (a) impudentiam hominis! (6) Nee 
vox hominem sonat. (c) Maximam partem lacte 
vivunt. (d) Unum exuta pedem vinclis. (e) Fossa 
tres pedes lata. (/) Si quid offenderit, sibi totum, 
tibi nihil offendit. (g) Naucratem, quern convenire 
volui, in navi non erat. (h) Tuam vicem doleo. 

5. Give a list of the impersonal verbs which 
govern the accusative, and give instances of intran- 
sitive verbs which take a complementary accusa- 

6. What is the meaning of dare operam, verba, 
fabulam; habere orationem, delectum, in animo, pro 
certo; ita res se habet; bene habet? 

7. Put into Latin: (1) I look upon that friend of 
yours as a traitor to his country. (2) In spite of 
his youth, he showed himself a man of prudence. 
(3) He feels neither shame nor sorrow for his 



1. What is the general meaning of the dative? 
Mention the chief verbs which are followed by a 
dative. What classes of adjectives and adverbs re- 
quire the dative? 

2. Classify the uses of the dative in the following 
examples: (a) Frontem puero floribus ornavit. (6) 
Odio erat Romanis. (c) Ecce tibi exortus est Isocrates. 
(d) Nomen puero Egerio fuit. (e) Turres procul in- 
tuentibus pares. (/) Cui non sunt auditae Demos- 
thenis vigiliae? (g) It clamor caelo. 

3. What limitations are there to the use of the 
predicative dative? 

4. Distinguish between the meaning of metuo, 
consulo, tempero, moderor, caveo, with the dative 
and the accusative. What is the construction of 
circumdo, dono? Illustrate. 

5. Give the English of pileo, pila, pilo, mando, 
tandem, piri, parci, porci, quare, domo, senti, mentum, 
scalae, vallum, portus, heri. 

6. Put into Latin: (1) The general sounded the 
signal for retreat. (2) An assembly was held for 
the election of consuls. (3) You were not solvent. 

(4) The Gauls threw themselves at Caesar's feet. 

(5) The law is a terror to evil-doers. (6) You 
ought to have done this before. 



1. Translate the following and classify the uses of 
the genitive case : (a) Senatus Hannibalis erat, plebs 
Romanorum. (6) Alcibiades capitis se damnatum 
audivit. (c) Magni iudicii debet esse orator, (d) 
Quanti quisque amicos facit, tanti fit ab amicis. 
(e) Ultimus fuit regum Romanorum. (/) Aevi 

2. In such a phrase as ' maior pars populi', do you 
consider 'populi' can rightly be called a partitive 
genitive? Give your reason, and suggest another 
name for the case. 

3. What difference of usage is there between the 
ablative and the genitive of description? 

4. How do you explain the case of med in ' mea 

5. Change into oratio obliqua: (a) Obsides remitte: 
id et privatim parentibus et publice populis gratum 
erit. (6) Si tantum postulassent legati pro his, qui 
in hostium potestate sunt, sententiam peregissem. 
(c) Citari singulos senatores iubebo, de quorum capite 
vos consulam: quod de quoque censueritis, fiet. 

6. What cases follow arguo, ignosco, persuadeo, 
recorder, attinet, impotens, compos, antepono? 

7. Put into Latin: (1) They do not desire you to 
leave the city. (2) I cannot help thinking the state 
will suffer by your rashness. (3) The apple I am 
about to eat cost three sesterces. 



1. What are the main uses of the ablative case? 

2. Classify the ablative cases in the following: 
(a) Quid magis est saxo durum, quid mollius unda ? 
(6) Cornibus tauri se tutantur. (c) Quod non opus 
est, asse carum est. (d) Murus nudatus est defen- 
soribus. (e) Nomine non potestate fuit rex. (/) 
Iniuria fit duobus modis. (g) Vir fuit animo magno 
et corpore. (h) Nemo omnibus horis sapit. (i) 
Aurelia via prof ectus est. (J) Parentibus nati sunt 

3. Translate in as many ways as you can ' Te 
invito haec non f aciam '. 

4. Give a list of the deponent verbs which govern 
an ablative. Why are they used with an ablative? 

5. What classes of adjective are followed by an 
ablative? What by a genitive? Give examples. 

6. ' Mortuos sepeliebant triste ministerium.' In 
what case are the words in italics, and why? Give 
rules for the case of a noun used in apposition to a 

7. Put into Latin: (1) I am surprised that so 
shrewd a man as your brother is so often deceived. 

(2) What was I to do? I had no one to advise me. 

(3) When I asked at (ab) the door, I was told my 
friend was not at home. 



1. Give the Latin for: To make war, peace; twice 
two make four; to take one's ease; to get old; get 
to sleep; get back the standards; get back home; 
get a house built; get a thing finished; get quit of; 
get a fever. 

2. Translate and explain cases or moods: Bona 
tua venia; ubi terrarum es? prudentius quam 
audacius; ecce tibi, litteras accepi; nostra refert; per 
me stetit quominus ires; multo sanguine stetit vic- 
toria; flocci facere; apud Livium scrip turn est; torva 
non tuens; a tergo adoriri; ex pedibus laboro; ex 
sententia navigavi; annus bissextus; a.d. xiv Kal. 
Oct.; Idibus Octobribus; nomen lulo puero additur; 
amissi filii dolor. 

3. Distinguish between mora and mora; foras, 
forum, fores, foros; pila and pila; pilum and pilus; 
colo and colo (2); lego and lego; venis and vems; 
venus and venum; questus, quaestus; anceps and 
auceps; velis and velis; metas and metas; patere 
and patere; auri, auris, aura, or& (2), ora; avia and 
avia; veri (2), vire. 

4. Correct or justify: 'Aspice ut insignis spoliis 
Marcellus opimis ingreditur \ 

5. Put into Latin: (1) Hardly anyone doubted 
he would obey that order. (2) Unaccustomed 
though I am to public speaking, I will say a few 
words. (3) The thieves, all of whom were Germans, 
were sent to prison. 



1. Enumerate the different kinds of adverbial 
clause, with an example of each. 

2. When is the perfect subjunctive used in a con- 
secutive clause instead of the imperfect? 

3. Translate the following sentences and account 
for the use of the subjunctive in each case: 
(a) Multaque se incusat qui non acceperit Aenean. 
(6) Nihil est quod tarn miseros faciat quam scelus. 

(c) Medico puto aliquid dandum quo sit studiosior. 

(d) Multa quoque et bello passus dum conderet 
urbem. (e) Dum ne tibi segnior esse videar non 
laboro. (/) Nuntia patribus urbem muniant. (g) 
Aves pascantur necne quid ref ert ? (h) Oderint dum 

4. Show by example the various ways of express- 
ing purpose in Latin. 

5. Explain the terms 'protasis' and 'apodosis', 
and write short sentences to illustrate the normal 
forms of conditional clauses. 

6. Put into Latin: (1) You will be trusted when 
you have shown yourself worthy of trust. (2) 
Xerxes offered a prize to the first man who invented 
a new pleasure. (3) If I had attacked him as he 
travelled, he would not now be here. 



1. Distinguish between a consecutive and a con- 
cessive clause. What is the name of a clause that 
expresses a purpose? a wish? a reason? Give 
instances of each of these, and also of a comparative 

2. Give examples of ut and cum used concessively. 

3. Translate: Tarn celeriter cucurrit ut anhelet; 
tarn celeriter cucurrit ut anhelaret; and account for 
the difference in tense. 

4. Translate: Tan turn afuit ut eum laudarem ut 
culparem; in eo erat ut interficeretur; non is erat 
quern talia delectarent; nihil est quod sensum habeat 
quin pereat. Explain the subjunctive in each case. 

5. Explain with examples the construction of 
verbs of preventing. 

6. Account for the change of mood in Sunt qui 
non habeant, est qui non curat habere argentum. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) He had no place to turn to. 
(2) I let no day pass without writing. (3) There is 
reason enough for us to be afraid. (4) There is no 
one but sometimes errs. (5) I cannot but admit the 
truth of your observations. 



1. Explain what is meant by the term ' compara- 
tive clause ', and state the rale for the use of the 
indicative or the subjunctive in such clauses. 

2. Mention some of the commonest conjunctions 
used in introducing comparative clauses. 

3. Translate into idiomatic English: (a) Ut sunt 
ita nominantur senes. (6) Magnus pavor, ut in re 
improvisa, fuit. (c) Quo quisque vir est honestior, 
eo minus alios pravis esse moribus suspicatur. (d) 
Tanta est tempestas quantam numquam antea vidi. 

4 Translate in as many ways as you can ' With 
your usual kindness'. 

5. What is the force of ut in the following? (a) 
Insignis, ut illorum temporum habitus erat, trium- 
phus. (6) Inermes ruebant, ut quibus nihil hostile 
suspectum esset. (c) Egone ut prolis meae fundam 
cruorem ? (d) Clarior res erat quam ut tegi posset. 
(e) Ut vidi, ut perii; ut me malus abstulit error. 

6. Put into Latin: (1) May each of you fare in 
accordance with his deserts. (2) Your behaviour 
is not consistent with your promises. (3) You 
have acted with more boldness than prudence. 



1. What is meant by a 'final clause'? What are 
the final conjunctions? Are the perfect and plu- 
perfect subjunctive ever used in a final clause ? If 
so, how ? 

2. Translate: Arcessivi copias quae impetum sus- 
tinerent; arcessivi copias quae impetum sustineant; 
and account for the difference of tense. 

3. What is the Latin for ' in short', 'to be brief, 
'with the intention of doing', 'to tell the truth', 
'trivial, not to say silly talk'? 

4. Translate: ' Hoc ei nuntiate quo celerius manus 
det ', and explain the construction of quo. 

5. Translate: 'Ei persuasum est ne illud faceret'; 
'omnibus persuasum est hostes mox adventures'. 
When is persuadeo followed by ut or ne, when by 
an infinitive? 

6. 'Servis suis Rubrius ut ianuam clauderent 
imperat'; 'Sicilian! ita vexavit (aorist) Verres ut 
in antiquum statum restitui non possit'. Comment 
on the sequence of tenses, and explain. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) I have given you this that 
you may live longer. (2) I have nothing to say 
about this matter, much less to write. (3) We must 
wait till the clouds roll away. 



1. Explain the terms 'protasis' and 'apodosis'. 
By what words is the protasis usually introduced? 

2. Point out the condition contained in: (a) Qui 
videret equum Troianum introductum, urbem cap- 
tarn diceret. (6) Roges me, nihil respondeam. (c) 
Si latet ars, prodest; affert deprensa pudorem. (d) 
Graeculus esuriens in caelum iusseris, ibit. 

3. Mention some exceptions to the rule that the 
moods of protasis and apodosis correspond. 

4. State clearly what is the statement implied in 
these conditional sentences: (1) Si quid haberet, 
daret. (2) Si quid habuisset, dedisset. (3) Si quid 
habeat, det. (4) Si quid habuit, dedit. 

5. Explain apparent irregularities of mood or 
tense in: (a) Memini numeros si verba tenerem. (6) 
Bonus vates poteras esse si voluisses. (c) Hunc, si 
ulla in te esset pietas, colere debebas. (d) Peream, 
nisi hoc verum est. (e) Perieram nisi tu accurrisses. 

6. What is the difference in use between nisi and 
si non? Illustrate. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) If I gain my request I 
shall be glad; if not, I shall be vexed. (2) Had 
you arrived sooner you might have seen the pro- 
cession. (3) Whether he reads or writes, he wastes 
no time. 



1. What is meant by a 'suppressed protasis'? 
Give an example. 

2. How comes it that ' O si ' with a subjunctive 
is used to express a wish ? Distinguish between : O 
si hoc accidat, accideret, accidisset. 

3. Supply the apodosis (using do, I give) to (a) 
Si quid habebam. . . (b) Si quid haberem... (c) Si 
quid habeam... (d) Si quid habuissem... Translate 
each sentence. 

4. What is the Latin for: 'You ought to have 
done this had you been allowed ' ; ' the army might 
have been destroyed'; 'he may have said this'; 
' it would be tedious if I told all ' ; ' it would have 
been better if he had gone away'? 

5. What is the protasis in (a) Urbe capta nemo 
effugiat. (b) Signo dato, in pugnam erumperent. 
(c) Da pauca: plura concupiscet? 

6. Put into oratio obliqua, after dicit and dixit: 
(a) Si quid habebo, dabo. (b) Si hoc feceris, poe- 
nam dabis. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) Would that I had died for 
thee, my son ! (2) When he was quite old he would 
often climb mountains. (3) He was so foolish that 
he would have jumped into the river had I not held 
him back. (4) I asked him what he would have 
done if I had not helped him. (5) If ever he saw 
anyone going too fast, he would stop him. 



1. Give general rules for the 'sequence of tenses'. 
Translate: (a) Ask them what they have done. 
(6) They want to know what you had done, (c) I 
asked what they would have done. 

2. Explain how ' vereor ut f aciat ' comes to mean 
' I fear he will not do '. 

3. How are questions in the 1st and 3rd persons 
treated in oratio obliqua? Express in orat. obi.: 
' Quid ego, pro inimico habitus, pro vobis et patria 
ausus sum? Quis nescit hoc omnibus esse dedecori?' 

4. When does the relative in orat. obi. take the 
infinitive? Put into orat. obi.: 'Errare malo cum 
Platone, quern quanti facias scio'. 

5. Give examples of four different uses of qui 
with the subjunctive. 

6. Translate the words in -ing in the following: 
(a) Seeing is believing. (6) A fine painting, (c) 
Fond of fighting, (d) Your coming pleases me. 
(e) Saying this he went away. (/) Don't read 
while eating, (g) Coming along the road we found 
a coin. 

7. In how many ways is it possible to translate 
'that' into Latin? 

8. Put into Latin: (1) Their entreaties proved 
unavailing and they returned unsuccessful. (2) 
There are some to whom spiders are an object of 
hatred. (3) Seven times seven makes forty-nine. 



1. Translate and explain the use of the parti- 
ciple in each case: (a) Sensit medios delapsus in 
hostes. (6) Voluptate dominante, iacent virtutes. 
(c) Laeti pergunt Galli ut explorata victoria, (d) 
Maelium regnum appetentem interemit. (e) Men- 
daci homini ne verum quidem dicenti credimus. 

2. Comment on the use of the infinitive in (a) 
Liber dignus legi. (6) Pecus egit visere montes. 
(c) Mago id nescire dixit. (d) Sperat se posse 
venire, (e) Vincere scis, victoria uti nescis. (/) 
Hominem Romanum tarn Graece loqui ! Translate. 

3. When is quo used for ut in a final clause? 
Give an example. 

4. What is the usual construction of verbs of 
fearing? Give all meanings of 'vereor ne veniat'. 
Distinguish the meanings of vereor and timeo. 
What other constructions may they have? 

5. How many ways are there of expressing ' al- 
though ' in Latin ? Give an instance of each. 

6. Give with examples the main usages of the 
infinitive mood. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) The burning of my home was 
a great grief to me. (2) They were afraid to return, 
thinking they were liable to punishment. (3) So 
far from blaming you, I greatly praise you. 



1. To what part of speech do the supines properly 
belong? Explain with examples how they are used. 
How far do they retain a verbal force ? 

2. How is the future infinitive passive expressed ? 
Give the Latin for ' I perceive she will be praised 5 . 

3. Distinguish between a gerund and a gerundive. 
What is the meaning of the gerund when used in 
the nominative? Give the Latin for 'running', 
' of running ', ' by running '. 

4. What limitation is there to the use of the 
gerundive? Give the Latin for 'by writing a 
letter ', ' by sparing the vanquished ', ' by doing 
something ', ' for the sake of ravaging the fields '. 

5. Translate and explain the construction of: (a) 
Poenas in morte timendum est. (6) Hoc libertatis 
conservandae est. (c) Ille non solvendo est. (d) 
Moriendum est aut vincendum. (e) Audendo res 
Romana crevit. 

6. Point out the ambiguity in ' victoribus victis 
parcendum est '. How can it be avoided ? 

7. Put into Latin: (1) It is easy to understand in 
what danger we are. (2) You must consult the 
interests of the citizens. (3) Caesar had a bridge 
made over the Rhine. 



1. Translate and explain the use of the participles: 
(a) Capitis absolutus, pecunia multatus est. (6) Urbs 
incensa dolori fuit victis. (c) Sole orto e castris 
progress! sunt. (d) Epistolae offendunt non loco 
redditae. (e) Libros antea confusos disposuisse 
dicitur. (/) Librum misi exigent! tibi, missurus 
etsi non exegisses. 

2. Translate and account for the subjunctives in: 
(a) Rusticus exspectat dum defluat amnis. (b) Bonus 
segnior fit ubi neglegas. (c) Impetrare non potui, 
quod religione se impediri dicerent. (d) Agunt 
gratias quod sibi pepercissent. (e) Oderint dum 
metuant. (/) Utrum nos defendamus an obviam 
eamus? (g) Cernis ut insultent Rutuli? 

3. Translate and comment on the grammar of: 
(a) Varium et mutabile semper f emina. (6) Naturam 
expellas furca tamen usque recurret. (c) Nee 
veterum memini laetorve malorum. (d) Assiduo 
ruptae lectore columnae. 

4. What is the meaning of ora in Luminis orae, 
orae clipei, ultima ora terrarum, ora navis? What 
meanings has marmorl Give all the Latin words 
you know for sea. 

5. Put into Latin: (1) I should like to escape 
from the burden of office. (2) Great as are his 
exploits, he deserves to be punished. (3) Cassius 
sent for the conspirators. (4) The loss of that 
battle was fatal to Pompey's cause. 



1. What cases follow aptus, dignus, gratus, laetus, 
similis; gratulor, interest, in video, parco, recorder, 
rogo, taedet? 

2. Put into oratio obliqua: (Ariovistus replied), "I 
am not in the habit of obeying orders: if he (Caesar) 
is willing to discuss the question (agere) of peace on 
fair terms, he must come to me, not I to him ". 

3. Distinguish the meaning of the present, the 
imperfect, the pluperfect subjunctive in wishes. 

4. In how many ways can Latin express the 
indefinite subject 'one'? Translate: One readily 
does what one likes; people say he is mad; one 
would think he was mad; it is not wise to trust 
one's foes; if one had anything, one would send it. 

5. Translate: Quod sciam; magnis itineribus con- 
tendit; secundum flumen; maior quam pro viribus; 
hoc mihi cordi est; agere et ferre; actum est de me; 
e pedibus laboro; temporibus errat; factus ad un- 
guem; bonus audit; novae tabulae; novae res. 

6. What is the Latin for Provoke, oppress, vast, 
crime, honour, the state, office, patriotism? 

7. Put into Latin: (1) He gave you more money 
than I. (2) He gave you more money than me. 
(3) The sooner it's over, the sooner to sleep. (4) 
This is the third day I have been waiting for him. 



1. Translate: Heres ex asse; qua es benevolentia 
omnes te amant; non potui non lacrimare; eo in- 
solentiae pervenit; a dextra stare; annus bissextus; 
cui bono fuit? capitis damnatus; verba dare, dicta 
dare; tu pulsas, ego vapulo tantum; actum est de 
republica; sagax audit; canere receptui; flocci non 

2. What cases follow plenus, expers, similis, gra- 
tulor, suadeo? 

3. Correct or justify: (a) Scire velim quare 
domos reliquissent. (6) Spero eum probum esse. 
(c) Cum domum redieram, calceos exuebam. (d) 
Memini ut illam aestatem egerimus. (e) Utenda 
est occasio. (/) Non tarn tua quam reipublicae 
interest ut salvus sis. 

4. Give the English of Si res postulabit, moria- 
mur; rebus prosperis uti; res frumentaria deest: 
maxima rerum Roma; verbis quam re probabilius; 
ea quae in rem sunt imperat; res gestae; non e re 
publica est illud; unus homo nobis cunctando resti- 
tuit rem. 

5. Show the difference in meaning between expose, 
vile, office, secure, honour, study, class, famous, crown, 
and the Latin words from which they are derived. 

6. Put into Latin: (1) He is about to be given a 
book. (2) I am sending you the only book I have. 
(3) Give me what you have, and let me know what 
you intend to do. 

(M450) F 



1. Explain and illustrate the use of the preposi- 
tions in: {a) Cohortes ab labore intritae. (6) Vinci 
<se per suum dedecus patiebantur. (c) Aries in 
cornua tortus. (d) Ad clipeum assurgit. (e) Ocu- 
losque sub astra tenebat. (/) Decemviri ex parte 
de plebe creantur. (g) De nobis facile est. 

2. Make and translate short sentences to illustrate 
the meaning and use of erga, versus, prae, coram, 
tenus, super. 

3. Classify the following uses of the genitive: 
(a) Spes salutis. (6) Moris est Graecorum. (c) 
Notus in fratres animi paterni. (d) Serum erat 
diei. (e) Capitis damnatur. (/) Trepidi rerum. 

4. Translate and explain the use of the passive: 
(a) Tertia vivitur aetas. (6) Inutile ferrum cingi- 
tur. (c) Pascuntur silvas. (d) Rura regnata Pha- 
lantho. (e) Haec ego procurare idoneus imperor. 
(/) Nuda genu, nodoque sinus collecta fluentes. 
(g) Curatus inaequali tonsore capillos. 

5. What was the value in English money of a 
sesterce? Explain the method of calculating by 

6. Put into Latin: "Rome, Jan. 18th, Dear 
Marcus, Many thanks for your letter. I am writ- 
ing to let you know I shall go to Capua on the 
1st of February. Yours sincerely, Tullius." 



1. Construct short sentences to illustrate the use 
of qui in final, consecutive, causal, and concessive 

2. When may qui be used instead of ut in con- 
secutive clauses after tarn, adeo, tantus? What is 
the Latin for (a) He is so foolish as not to know 
anything? (6) Who is so cruel as not to pity the 
wretched ? 

3. Translate: (a) Ea est Romana gens quae victa 
quiescere nesciat. (6) Ita vera dicit ut nemo ei ne 
iurato quidem credat. (c) Lucullus non potest ita 
decoquere ut non multos secum perdat. (d) Ut 
fortes sunt, ita sunt fideles. 

4. Explain what is meant by the ' subjunctive of 
alleged reason'. Translate: 'He was hated by all 
for having betrayed his country '. After what sort 
of verbs is this quod- clause used with the sub- 
junctive ? 

5. What is the difference in meaning between 
'mihi irascitur quod occasionem omisi' and 'quod 
occasionem omiserim"? 

6. Put into Latin: (1) He was unworthy of hav- 
ing such distinctions given him. (2) You have no 
reason to be angry. (3) So far as I know, he is 
not the sort of man to forgive an insult. (4) I 
cannot help laughing. 



1. Explain what is meant by the term 'oratio 
obliqua'. Is it true to say that the 1st and 2nd 
persons disappear from oratio obliqua? Give the 
Latin for: 'You remember how I told you yesterday 
I was suffering from headache'. 

2. State clearly the rule for mood in oratio 
obliqua. How do you account for the use of the 
indicative in: ' Themistocles eum certiorem fecit id 
agi ut pons, quern ille fecerat, dissolveretur'? 

3. How are commands and prohibitions expressed 
in oratio obliqua? 

4. Show how the different pronouns change in 
reported speech. Put into oratio obliqua, (1) after 
dicit', (2) after dixit: 'I will follow him when you 
bid me; let them guard the city'. 

5. What is meant by 'virtual oratio obliqua'? 
Translate: 'They complained of Verres because he 
treated them unjustly'. 

6. Give rules for the mood and tense and person 
of questions in reported speech. 

7. Put into oratio obliqua, after a present and 
a past tense: (a) Nos a patribus nostris ita didici- 
mus ut virtute contendamus. (6) Quid tibi vis? 

(c) Quid levius est quam ab incepto desistere? 

(d) Nolite patriam prodere : in hostes progrediamur. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) He warned the lieutenant 
not to advance before he himself had returned. (2) 
They admitted it served them right for having acted 
so foolishly. (3) He refused to be the first to enter 
the city. 



1. In oratio obliqua what changes from direct 
speech take place in regard to statements, questions, 
commands, and wishes, and dependent clauses? 

2. What is meant by a rhetorical question? How 
are such questions expressed in oratio obliqua? 

3. How is the future perfect indicative expressed 
in oratio obliqua? 

4. Put into oratio obliqua, (1) after a present; 
(2) after a past tense: (a) Servos mittam qui dona 
ferant. (6) Ibo quo iubes. (c) Cur facitis quod non 
licet? (d) Ad urbem hodie eamus. (e) Cum aliquid 
novi audiero, tibi dicam. 

5. Put into oratio obliqua: (a) Qui hoc faciunt, 
poenas dent. (6) Fugi quod timebam. (c) Si quid 
habebit dabit. (d) Hie est murus quern aedificavi. 
(e) Si hoc dicas erres. (/) Si hoc diceres, errares. 
(g) Si hoc dixisses erravisses. (h) Urbs capta esset 
nisi subvenisset. 

6. Put into direct speech: 'Aut cederent virtute 
genti per eos dies totiens ab se victae, aut itineris 
finem sperarent campum Tiberi ac Romae interia- 

7. Put into Latin (in oratio recta and oratio ob- 
liqua): "Can anyone doubt that our allies are faith- 
ful? If they had intended to desert us, would they 
thus to-day have come to our help? If it can be 
done without harm to the state, let us grant them 
the freedom they desire." 



1. What difference of meaning is there between 
' turbae me eripuit' and ' ex turba me eripuit' ? Give 
a rule for when to use the preposition in such cases. 

2. Give the Latin for: From Aulis, a town of 
Boeotia; from the town of Gergovia; he fled to his 
father at Corinth; the place is distant two miles 
from the city of Athens. 

3. When is 'with' expressed by the simple abla- 
tive, when by cum and the ablative? Translate, 
using nouns: 'To write with care', 'to act wrong- 
fully', 'to fight resolutely'. 

4. Explain the construction of opus est (a) with 
nouns; (6) with actions. What is the Latin for 
We need a leader (2); there is no need to boast; 
there is need of haste; what need is there of pre- 

5. Translate: 'Quid digitos opus est graphic las- 
sare tenendo?' and explain the case of quid. 

6. Put into Latin: (1) It so happened that they 
had left a few days before. (2) On being informed 
of our purpose in coming, he inquired into the char- 
acter of our climate. (3) He waited till the House 
rose, and then went home. 



1. Translate and remark on the use of the pro- 
noun: (a) Illud Cassianum, cui bono fuit? (b) His 
duobus mensibus. (c) Ex illo Junonia permanet 
ira. (d) Illud quaerendum est num honesto ita 
agere liceat. (e) Quae tua est ista vita? (/) Non is 
sum qui hoc faciam. (g) Quid agas cum te furiosus 
cogit et idem fortior? 

2. What is the Latin for He asked those near 
him; those living at Corinth; my friends and 
those of iny brother; I will give you all the money 
I have; it happened through your fault? 

3. Write sentences and translate them, to illus- 
trate the use and meaning of quispiam, quisquam, 
nonnullus, ullus. 

4. After what words, and in what sort of sen- 
tences, is quis (indefinite) used ? What difference is 
there between quicunque and quisquis? 

5. Distinguish between alter alterum laudant, 
alius alium laudant, and alteri alteros laudant; 
uterque, utrique, and uter. 

6. Translate: Alternis diebus; sexto quoque die; 
quotus es? quanto plures, tanto hilariores; quotus- 
quisque omnino sapit. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) I feel a sort of pleasure in 
doing hard duties. (2) Somehow or other the old 
are rather talkative. (3) One of the two brothers 
is dead. (4) His actions do not harmonize with his 



1. How does haud differ in use from non? When 
would you use nee, neque, and when neu, neve, for 

2. Explain the difference between, nisi, si non, 
and sin', aut and vel. 

3. What are the usual ways of expressing a pro- 
hibition? In what cases would you use the impera- 
tive or the present subjunctive to express a prohibi- 

4. How does num in a direct question differ in 
meaning from num in a dependent question? 

5. How are English ' yes' and 'no' (in answer 
to a question) expressed in Latin? Translate: (a) 
"Will you do this?" "No, I won't." (6) "Is your 
father in?" "No." (c) "Do you deny it?" "Yes, 
certainly." (d) "Are you ready to do this?" They 
answer " No," " Yes." 

6. How is c or not' rendered in a direct and in an 
indirect question? Translate: "Are you the man 
I'm looking for or not? Tell me whether he re- 
members us or not." 

7. Explain the use of an in disjunctive questions. 
Translate: Res est temptata si primo impetu capi 
Ardea posset. 

8. Put into Latin: (1) If you gain your object, 
well and good; if not, we will trust to luck. (2) 
With this answer he dismissed the various envoys 
to their homes. (3) Some blame him for having 
done nothing, others for having done too much. 



1. Distinguish between consulo alicui, aliquein, 
in aliquem; caveo alicui, aliquem, ab aliquo; anim- 
adverto aliquem, in aliquem; simulo, dissimulo. 

2. What is the difference in meaning between 
manes and m&nes; oblitus and oblltus; redeam and 
reddam; para, pare, and pare; refert and refert; 
coepere and cepere; notus and notus? 

3. When would you translate 'that no one' by ne 
quis, when by ut nemo ? Distinguish between nisi 
and si non' } neque and neve; non modo and modo 
non', vereor ut and vereor ne. 

4. Illustrate by means of short sentences (trans- 
lated) the different ways of rendering into Latin the 
English 'move', 'change', 'collect', 'increase', 're- 
move ', * disperse ', when used transitively and when 

5. Translate: (a) Canis non est canem; (6) ne 
hodie si vis esse eras; (c) matutine pater, seu lane 
libentius audis. 

6. Distinguish between ars scribentfis and ars 
scribencfo; sole fulgente and sole fulgent^. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) I could hardly convince 
him that danger was at hand. (2) They said that 
Cato was not a man to be trusted. (3) The wiser 
a man is, the less patient he is of folly. 



1. Translate carefully: (Ariovistus respondit) 'Si 
ipse populo Romano non praescriberet quemadmo- 
dum suo iure uteretur, non oportere sese a populo 
Romano in suo iure impediri. Caesarem iniuriam 
facere qui suo adventu vectigalia sibi deteriora 
f aceret. Quod sibi Caesar denuntiaret se Aeduorum 
iniurias non neglectururn, neminem secum sine sua 
pernicie contendisse.' 

2. What is the difference in meaning between se 
ipsum vulneravit and se ipse vulneravit? 

3. Change into oratio obliqua: 'Militi armato 
nihil secum portanti quid inexsuperabile est? Sa- 
guntum ut caperetur quid laboris a vobis exhaustum 
est? Ceperunt quondam Galli ea quae adiri posse 
Poenus desperat '. 

4. State and illustrate the rules for the use of se 
and suus in a dependent clause. 

5. (a) Balbus rediit quod ei imperaveram. (6) 
Balbus gratias mihi egit quod sibi subvenissem. 
Explain why ei is used in one case, sibi in the 

6. Put into Latin: (1) The general advises the 
soldiers to rely on their own valour. (2) The Gauls 
begged him not to burn their homes. (3) They 
begged so earnestly that he could not refuse their 



1. Translate: (1) Utor aliquo amico. (2) Utor 
consilio. (3) Utor legibus. (4) Utor bono patre. 
(5) Condicione utor. (6) Foro uti. 

2. Express in as many ways as possible, 'more 
than twelve years old'. 

3. Is the preposition always omitted with domum ? 
If not, when? Put into Latin: We came to Pom- 
pey's house; to come to a grand house. 

4. When would 'the future' be translated by 
1 f utura ', when by ' res f uturae ' ? Give instances. 

5. Express in two ways: 'Words more pleasant 
than true', 'a marsh not wider than fifty feet', 
' illustrious for wealth, fortune, and honour '. 

6. Distinguish carefully between ne audi, ne 
audito, non audies, ne audias, noli audire, ne audi- 
veris in rendering ' do not hear '. 

7. How is quin used in principal clauses? Give 

8. Give the English of: Pecuniae rationem habere; 
rationes domesticae et bellicae; meas rationes vestrae 
saluti posthabeo; alicuius salutis rationem habere; 
ratio atque usus belli; ratione fecit quod discessit; 
Epicuri ratio notissima. 

9. Put into Latin: (1) Look back, in case we are 
being followed. (2) The prisoners, of whom there 
were three, were put in chains. (3) For all your 
pride you are contemptible to all. 



1. Explain and illustrate the construction of in- 
terest, misereor, tempero, pertinet, tenus, condemno, 

2. Show the usage of nedum, dumtaxat, penes, 
tenus, instar, equidem, prae, nimirum, num, quoad. 

3. Translate and comment on : (a) Celerem pronos 
volvere menses, (b) Infelix qui nihil profecerit. 
(c) Peto pacem, qui non peterem nisi utilem cre- 
derem. (d) Neque audebis neque si cupias licebit. 
(e) Die ubi ea nunc est, obsecro. (/) Desine querel- 
larum. (g) Per pedes traiectus lora tumentes. 

4. Give the ablative singular of anceps, auceps, 
incus, fornix; the perfect indicative of concino, 
pecto, reperio, lego; the supine of vivo, colo, desilio, 
consulo, and incesso. 

5. Mention with examples the chief uses of the 
genitive case. 

6. Put into oratio obliqua: "Una turma", ait, 
" Romani, cum Latinis sociisque bellum gesturi estis ? 
quid consules, quid duo exercitus agent ?" " Aderunt 
in tempore", Manlius inquit, "et cum illis aderit 
luppiter ipse foederum a vobis violatorum testis." 

7. Put into Latin: (1) Mind you tell no one why 
I am here. (2) It is a mean thing to barter honour 
for gain. (3) Happy man! to be able to take a 
holiday when he likes. 



1. Give as many instances as you can of the 
subjunctive used in independent sentences. What 
other name has been given to this mood? 

2. Classify the following uses of the subjunctive: 
(a) Crederes victos. (6) Vellem adesse posset Panae- 
tius. (c) Quid f acerem ? quo f ugerem ? (d) Ne sit 
summum malum dolor, malum certe est. (e) Utinam 
me obruerent Rutuli. (/) Dictis, Albane, maneres. 

3. Define the term 'consecutive clause'. How 
is English ' would have ' translated in a consecutive 
clause? Put into Latin: 'Such was the panic that 
all would have run away had not help arrived '. 

4. What meanings may qui have with the sub- 
junctive? Translate: (a) Epistolam misi qua tibi 
hoc nuntiarem. (6) Non is erat qui iniuste ageret. 
(c) Demens qui fulmen lovis simularet. (d) Consul 
qui bis v ictus esset non desperabat. 

5. Translate: (a) Augusto prompta, quae deceret 
principem, eloquentia fuit. (b) Nemo tarn ferus 
fuit quin lacrimarit. (c) Fuere qui hoc verum 
crederent. Explain the subjunctives. 

6. Put into Latin: (1) He was too great to be 
resisted. (2) She never saw him without reproach- 
ing him. (3) He cannot be discharged from jail 
without paying the fine. 



1. What meanings has cum when used with the 
indicative and with the subjunctive? Give examples. 

2. Translate the following, explaining the mood 
in each: (a) Tibi gratulor cum tantum vales. (6) 
Cum ad villam veni, nihil agere me delectat. (c) 
Longum illud tempus cum non ero. (d) Multi anni 
sunt cum in aere meo est. (e) Nondum decem anni 
sunt cum lex est lata. (/) Nihil me adiuvit cum 
posset, (g) Consilia cum patriae turn sibi inimica 

3. Classify the uses of ut with the indicative and 
the subjunctive. 

4. Translate and explain the mood: (a) Ut qui 
civem occidisset impunitatem acciperetl (6) Ut 
desint vires tamen est laudanda voluntas. (c) 
Vereor ut hoc accidat. (d) Inusitatae luxuriae fuit 
ut qui retibus aureis piscaretur. 

5. Change into oratio obliqua: " Tacuissem hodie 
ne quid in omnium gaudio, minus laetum quod esset 
vobis, loquerer: nunc si reticeam aut superbus aut 
obnoxius videar ". 

6. Put into Latin: (1) When you were told to do 
this at once, what made you wait till the chance 
passed by? (2) So far was I from praising him 
that I thought he deserved a whipping. (3) Was 
it not absurd, he asked, to hope to defeat so for- 
midable a foe with so meagre a force? 



1. Explain the following abbreviations: S.P.D., 
S.P.Q.R., S.C., N.L., V.R., D.D.D., Cn., 0, Prid. Kal. 
Ian., 10, CIO, 100, CCIOO, P.C, Coss., A., C., 

2. Of what figures are these instances ? (a) Sub- 
mersas obrue naves. (6) Laxat claustra virosque. 
(c) Strenua inertia, (d) Vi et armis. (e) Infractos 
adverse Marte Latinos videt. (/) Portum tetigere 

3. Express in as many ways as possible: (a) 
With your usual prudence you kept quiet. (6) He 
died six days after I saw him. (c) I saw him six 
days before he died. 

4. What is the construction of miseror, recordor, 
impero, caveo, credo, consulo, plenus, taedet, laedo, 
eripio, irrideo, egeo? 

5. Give the Latin for two million, 28455, 98, 
10,000th, 21st, 16 apiece,. 51 times, three times six 
is eighteen, one-half, three-quarters, half as many 
again, twice as many. 

6. Translate: Rideat si adsit; rideret si adesset; 
si quid acceperit reddet; si quid accepisset reddi- 
disset. Give in each case the implied statement. 
Also put into oratio obliqua after dixit. 

7. Put into Latin: (1) The consul fixed the elections 
for the 3rd of September. (2) Under the circum- 
stances, it would be most foolish to persevere in the 
attempt. (3) Who is there but pities the prisoners ? 



1. Translate and explain the moods or tenses: (a) 
Dum illud tractabam dolores fovebam. (6) Multa 
quoque et bello passus dum conderet urbem. (c) 
Mihi hac nocte agitandum est vigilias. (d) O raihi 
praeteritos referat si luppiter annos. (e) Solvendo 
non erat Magius. (/) Delitui dum vela darent, si 
forte dedissent. 

2. Translate and explain the case-constructions: 

(a) Timor omnis abesto quod superest. (b) Vestes 
quas laeta laborum illi fecerat Dido, (c) Salve 
aeternum mini aeternumque vale, (d) lustitiaene 
prius mirer belline laborum? (e) Nulli exaudita 
deorum vota. 

3. When are postquam, antequam followed by the 
pluperfect, when by the perfect indicative ? Trans- 
late: (a) His father came two days after he left. 

(b) After reaching the city they announced their 

4. Give the English of dare poenas, iter, operam, 
litteras, vela, manus, nomina, terga, fabulam, verba, 
vitio; and of agere animam, quid agis? nihil agis, 
suum negotium agere; agere excubias, silentium, 
gratias, aestiva, conventus, cum populo, causam. 

5. Put into Latin: (1) I have been waiting for you 
for three hours now. (2) Having at last got a 
favourable wind, he set sail. (3) The gale is daily 
getting more furious. 



1. Translate and comment on the use of mood or 
tense: (a) Nos numerus sumus et fruges consumere 
nati. (6) Me truncus illapsus sustulerat nisi Faunus 
ictum levasset. (c) Tristitiam et metus tradam 
protervis portare ventis. (d) Uxor invicti lovis esse 
nescis. (e) Mene incepto desistere victam! 

2. Translate and explain case-constructions: (a) 
Regiiia oculos deiecta decoros. (6) Tempora nudus 
fulgebat. (c) Si qua sui est forti fiducia, audeo. 
(d) Armato milite obsidam fauces, (e) Pulsus regno, 
Syracusas ad Dionysum sese contulit. 

3. Give some rules for the tenses to be used in 
writing a letter in Latin. Translate: 'Nihil habe- 
bam quod scriberem; neque enim novi quidquam 
audieram, et ad omnes tuas epistolas rescripseram 
pridie ; erat tamen rumor comitia dilatum iri '. 

4. What fault is there in ' Opinor eum sibi 
fortunatum visum iri'? 

5. Derive meridies, armentum, septentrio, contio, 
infans: and give the etymological meaning of tanta- 
lize, ovation, ponder, supercilious, ruminate. 

6. Put into Latin: (1) Seeing that he was himself 
to blame, he does not deserve to be pitied. (2) In- 
stead of resisting bravely they took to flight. (3) 
He returned in order not to be accused in his absence 
nor condemned unheard. 

(M450) G 



1. Translate and explain the moods or tenses: 
(a) Cum ver esse coeperat, Verres dabat se laboribus. 
(6) Sol ubi montium mutaret umbras. (c) In- 
gemiscunt non quod doleant sed quia omne corpus 
intenditur. (d) Ut quaeras omnia quomodo Graeci 
ineptum appellent, non reperies. (e) Sunt multi qui 
eripiunt aliis quod aliis largiantur. (/) Vix reliquit 
qui efFerretur. 

2. Translate and explain the case-constructions: 
(a) Magna tropaea ferunt quos dat tua dextera leto. 
(6) It caelo clamorque virum clangorque tubarum. 
(c) In flammam iugulant pecudes. (d) In mediis sedet 
Latinus maximus aevo et haud laeta fronte. (e) 
Non veterum memini laetorve malorum. 

3. What constructions follow dono, muto, cir- 
cumdo, posthabeo, accuso, credo, potior? 

4. By what cases does Latin express quality, 
origin, material, time, manner, measure of difference ? 
Quote or make instances. 

5. What sorts of verbs govern (a) two accusatives, 
(6) the genitive, (c) the ablative case? 

6. Put into Latin: (1) It takes a wise man to 
know what ought to be done at all times. (2) It is 
the height of folly to resist the laws: it is our duty 
to obey them. (3) It was madness to expect to 
conquer Britain with so scanty an army. 



1. Translate and comment on the use of the mood 
or tense: (a) Antoni gladios potuit contemnere si 
sic omnia dixisset. (6) Spatia et si plura supersint, 
transeat elapsus prior, (c) At non historia cesserim 
Graecis. (d) Tityre, dum redeo, pasce capellas. 
(e) Tribuni nee auspicate nee litato instruunt aciem. 

2. Translate and explain case-constructions: (a) 
Ambo animis insignes, hie pietate prior. (6) Pacem 
te poscimus omnes. (c) Distinct hostem agger 
murorum. (d) Ibo animis contra Troianos. (e) 
Fremit arma iuventus. (/) Vim viribus exit, (g) 
Macte virtute esto. 

3. What general idea is expressed by the genitive 
case? What is the origin of the name? 

4. Write short notes on the folio wing: (l)Numeros 
memini si verba tenerem. (2) Labebar longius nisi 
me retinuissem. (3) Pons iter paene hostibus dedit 
ni unus vir fuisset. (4) Movet castra, si oppido 
potiri posset. 

5. Put into Latin: (1) After much urging, at last 
I got him persuaded to stay at home. (2) I shall 
get a new bridge built over the river if I can. (3) 
Get ready to go with me to call on Lentulus. (4) 
I hate a man who is always getting into a rage. 



1. Translate and explain the use of the infinitive: 
(a) Ego hue missa sum ludere. (b) Dederat comam 
diffundere ventis. (c) Spero nostram amicitiam non 
egere testibus. (d) Modo sum pollicitus ducere. 
(e) Bacchatur si pectore possit excussisse deum. 

2. What classes of verbs are regularly constructed 
with an infinitive? 

3. Translate and explain case-constructions: (a) 
Excussus curru volvitur humi. (6) Exsultat Amazon 
unum exserta latus pugnae. (c) Eun-eum Clytio 
patre fundit. (d) Praedae et spoliorum ardebat 
amore. (e) Non longis inter se passibus absunt. 

4. Give the English of: Alicui in manu esse, in 
manu esse parentium, est in manibus laudatio, ad 
manum esse, res ad manus venit, servus a manu, per 
manus morem tradere, aequa manu discedere, manus 
dare, virtutis causa ne manum quidem vertit, 
manum de tabula, coniuratorum manus. 

5. What is meant by attraction? Give instances 
of attraction of the relative to the predicate, and 
vice versa; of gender; of mood. 

6. Translate: (1) In the present cold weather 
I never go out without shutting the door. (2) 
Troublesome as he is, one cannot help loving him. 
(3) Instead of working, you waste your time playing. 



1. What are the Latin proverbs corresponding to: 
To carry coals to Newcastle; out of the frying-pan 
into the fire; the cobbler to his last; birds of a 
feather; to teach one's grandmother? 

2. What is meant by euphemism ? Give examples. 

3. Translate and comment on: Olympia vincere; 
vox hominem sonat; lugubre rubens sidus; per si 
quis Amatae tangit honos animum iuro; figura con- 
similis est capreis', respublica mea unius opera salva 
erat; superiorum dierum Sabini cunctatio; venit 
in mentem temporis illius; notumque furens quid 
femina possit. 

4. What figures of speech are exemplified by: (a) 
Inceptoque et sedibus haeret in isdem. (6) Splendide 
mendax. (c) Pars leves clipeos et spicula lucida 
tergunt. (d) Mammis et lacte ferino nutribat. 

5. Explain all the names in Gaius Julius Caesar 
Octavianus Augustus. 

6. Put into Latin, in oratio obliqua: " Does anyone 
suppose that a man of this sort, who has committed 
crimes almost from boyhood, will suffer hardships 
in order to help his fellow-citizens? In my opinion 
you are acting foolishly in not banishing him. Do 
not forget my words; I have warned you to-day 
not to trust that fellow." 



1. Explain and illustrate the terms: hypallage, 
synizesis, metonymy, aposiopesis, oxymoron, zeugma, 
hendiadys, synecdoche, syncope, simile, metaphor, 
personification, brachylogy, prolepsis, tmesis, litotes, 

2. Of what grammatical figures are the following 
examples? (a) Ex spoliis et torquem et cognomen 
induit. (6) Et genus et virtus vilior alga est. (c) 
Spemque metumque inter dubii. (d) Qua te cunque 
vocat fortuna. (e) Abiit, evasit, excessit. 

3. Supply the ellipses in ad Vestae, Caecilia 
Metelli, ad quartum, hiberna, oneraria, decumae, 

4. Translate: (a) Extemplo Libyae magnas it 
Fama per urbes. (6) Cornua arieti similia. (c) Ira 
incensus. (d) Marte secundo omnia corripiunt. (e) 
Manus ac voces ad Tiberium tendentes. (f) Vi et 
armis superabimus. (g) Moriamur et in arma 
ruamus. Of what figures of speech are they 
instances ? 

5. ' Vilius argentum est auro, virtutibus aurum.' 
What is such an arrangement of words called ? and 

6. Put into Latin: (1) Get up; the sun is on the 
point of rising. (2) Get away, and see you don't 
come back. (3) After he had heard of his son's 
doings, he got angry. (4) Since you have got to go, 
better start at once. 



1. Account for the change of mood in Coniuratos 
occidi non quod eos timerem, sed quod necessarium 
esse mihi videbatur. 

2 What constructions are required with circumdo, 
posthabeo, obsto, sino, arguo, praesto, statuo? 

3. What is the epexegetic infinitive? Give 

4. Give instances of onomatopoeic words. Ex- 
plain the term. 

5. Put into oratio obliqua: 'Spectatumne hue ad 
rem f ruendam venimus ? Ne civium quidem horum 
nos pudet quos patres nostri miserunt ut ab Samnite 
hoste tuta haec ora esset, quam nunc non vicinus 
urit sed Poenus advena.' 

6. Change into oratio recta: (Dixit) 'stultitiam 
esse sedendo hostes debellari credere posse: copias 
in aequum deducendas ut vir cum viro congrederen- 
tur: audendo rem Romanam crevisse,non eis segnibus 
consiliis quae timidi cauta vocarent.' 

7. Put into Latin: (1) It is impossible to do this 
without injuring many. (2) I wonder which of the 
two horses to choose. (3) They nearly all found 
fault with me for eating fish. (4) Wait a few days, 
in case anything happens. 



1. Translate and comment on: (1) Clodius non 
habet unde solvat. (2) Pauper erat cum divitissi- 
mus esse posset. (3) Tarn sum fidus quam qui 
fidissimus. (4) Tresviri reipublicae constituendae. 

2. What figures of speech are contained in (a) 
Fulgor armorum fugaces terret equos; (b) Strenua 
inertia; (c) Sic ore locutus; (d) luvenem non 
virtutis egentem; (e) Argento post omnia ponas? 

3. What is an archaism ? a Graecism ? a solecism ? 
Give an example of each. 

4. Translate : ' Cicero Attico S. P. D. Cum quod 
scriberem ad te nihil haberem, tamen, ne quern diem 
interrnitterem, has dedi litteras. A. d. VI K. 
Caesarem Sinuessae mansurum nuntiabant.' 

5. Translate: (1) M. Tullius M. F. Cicero S. D. Cn. 
Pompeio Cn. F. S. T. E. Q. V. B. E. (2) ' Tullius 
Terentiae suae salutem dicit. Quod ad me scribis te 
vicum vendituram, quid, me miserum! quid futurum 
est? et quid puero misero fiet? Fac valeas et ad 
me tabellarios mittas, ut sciam quid agatis. Tulliolae 
salutem die. Valete. D. a. d. vi Kal. Dec. Dyrrhachii.' 

6. Put into Latin: 'Athens, April 5th. Dear 
Tullia, Many thanks for your letter. I have no 
news to give you, but be sure to write as often as 
you can. Love to Marcus. Yours affectionately, 


This vocabulary is not a complete one ; very common words are 
omitted, and synonyms like 'answer' and 'reply' appear under only 
one of the pair. In some cases the words given are hints, not 
literal renderings. 

about (to be... to), in eo esse ut. 
absent, absens. 
absurd, absurdus. 
accomplish, perficere. 
according to, proinde ac. 
actually, etiam. 
add to this that, accedit ut. 
address, salutare. 
admit, fateri. 
admit of, quam ut. 
advance, progredi. 
affectionately yours, vale et 


alive, vivus. 

all but, minimum abesse quin. 
all up with, actum esse de. 
allowed (be), licere. 
angry, irasci, succensere. 
answer, respondere. 
anxious (be), cupere. 
anyone, quisquam, quivis. 
apple, malum. 
arbitrarily, libidinose. 
ascertain, cognoscere. 
ask advice, consulere. 
assembly (hold), comitia facere. 
attack, impetum facere. 
attempt, inceptum. 

B.C., anno urbis conditae (sub- 
tract from 754). 
banish, expellere. 


barter, mercari. 

begin, inire. 

behave, se gergre. 

bill, rfigatio. 

birth, nasci. 

blame, compellare. 

blind, caecus. 

boast, gloriari. 

boldly, audacter. 

borrow, mutuari. 

bread, panis. 

burden, onus. 

burn, incendSre. 

but, quin; I cannot but, facere 

non possum quin. 
buy, emere. 

call on, salutatum ire. 

calmly, aequo animo. 

Cannae (of), Cannensis. 

case (in), si forte. 

chain, vinculum. 

chance, occasio. 

character, mores, qualis (adj.). 

chariot, currus. 

cheap, vilis. 

choose, eligere. 

circumstances (under the), quae 

cum ita sint. 
climate, caelum. 
climb, ascendere. 
clock (what o'), qu(5ta hora? 



cloud, nubes. 
cold weather, frigftra. 
commit, admittere. 
concerns, interest, refert. 
condemn, damnare. 
Conservatives, optimates. 
consistent ( not . . . with ), aliter 


conspirators, coniurati. 
consult interests of, consulere 


contemporary, aequalis. 
contemptible, contemptui esse. 
convince, persuadere. 
corn, frumentum. 
cost, constare, emi. 
cow, vacca. 
crafty, callidus. 
crime, scelus. 
cross, transire. 

daily, cotidie, in dies. 

day before, pridie. 

deceive, fallere. 

deliberately, de industria. 

depart, discedere. 

deserts, men turn. 

deserve, dignus esse. 

desire, cupere. 

despise, contemnere. 

destroy, delere; pass, perire. 

destruction, exitium. 

determine, constituere. 

difference (makes a), interest. 

different from, aliter atque. 

discharge, llberare. 

dishonour, ignommia. 

dismiss, dinuttere. 

distinction, h5nor. 

ditch, fossa. 

do without, carere. 

doctor, mgdicus. 

doing (all one's), per aliquem 

stare quormnus. 
door, ianua. 
duty, munus, hSnestum. 

earnestly, vehementer. 
elect, deligere. 

elections, comitia (plu.). 
enjoy, frui. 
enough... to, ita...ut. 
entreaty, obsecrare. 
envy, invldia. 
escape, effugere. 
ever (if), si quando. 
everyone, quivis. 
evil-doer, impr6bus. 
expectation, spes. 
expedient, utilis. 
exploit, res gesta. 
explore, explorare. 
expression, vultus. 

face, (v.) obviam ire; facing 

(adj.) ad versus. 
fail, rem male gerere. 
faithful, fidelis. 
famine, in5pia cibi. 
famous, praeclarus. 
far (so... from), tantum abesse. 
fare, e venire. 
farmer, agricola. 
fatal (be... to), perdere. 
fault (find), culpare. 
favour, favere. 
favourable, secundus. 
feel, percipere. 
feel sure, pro certo habere. 
few, pauci; how few, quotus 

fierce, trux. 
fine, multa. 

fire (set... to), incendere. 
fix, edlcere. 
fleet, classis. 

flight (take to), terga vertgre. 
folly, stultitia. 
foolish, stultus. 
forbid, vetare. 
foreigner, barbarus. 
forget, oblivisci. 
forgive, ignoscgre. 
formidable (so), tantus atque 


freedom, libertas. 
French, Gallus. 



frighten, terreo. 
furious (be), saevire. 

gain, lucrum. 

gain, consequi; (request) im- 


gale, tempestas. 
get, nancisci. 
get back, se recipere; get to, 

accedere; get up, surgSre; 

get away, abire. 
glad (be), gaudere. 
gladly, libenter. 
glorious, pulcher. 
go without, carere. 
goal, meta. 

good (do), bSne facere. 
greatly, magno opere. 
grief, ddlor. 

half, dimidium. 

half as large again, dimidio 


hand (be at), adesse. 
happen, accidere, fieri, 
harbour, portus. 
hardship, labor. 
harm, nocere. 
harmonise, consentire (or use 


have (a thing done), curare, 
height of, summus. 
heir to three quarters, heres 

ex dodrante. 

heir to whole, heres ex asse. 
help, subvenire. 
help (cannot), facere non posse 


helpless, inops. 
hindrance, impedlmentum. 
hold back, retmere. 
holiday (take a), otiari. 
house rose, senatus dimitti. 
how many, quSt. 

important (it is), refert. 
impossible, fieri non posse. 
improve, emendare. 
inform, certiorem facere. 

instead of, cum debeas. 

insult, contumelia. 

intend, esse in animo (or use 

consulto, or part, in -urus). 
interest, ex usu esse, interesse. 
issue, eventus. 

join, convenire. 
jump, desillre. 

kind, miti animo. 
knave, impr6bus. 

last few, hi pauci. 

late, adv. sero. 

leap, salire. 

leave, abire, relinquere. 

leisure, otium. 

let know, fac sciam. 

let pass, praetermittere. 

liable, obnoxius. 

lie, iacere. 

lieutenant, legatus. 

like (I), mihi placet, libet. 

likely, veri similis. 

likely to (fut. part.). 

live, vivere, habltare. 

load, Snus. 

long, diu. 

look back, respicere. 

look on, habere pro. 

look round, circumspicere. 

lose, amittere. 

lost battle, adversa pugna. 

lot, sors. 

' love to ', verbis nostris saluta. 

luck, fortuna. 

mad, amens. 
man to, is...qui. 
man-of-war, navis longa. 
market-place, f5rum. 
marry, (uxorem) ducere. 
marsh, palus. 
matters, refert. 
meagre (so), tantulus. 
mean, turpis. 
meet, obviam ire. 
milk, mulgere. 



mind, fac or cura ut. 
mistake, errare. 
money (sum of), pecunia. 
mortal, mortifer. 
move, rnigrare. 
much less, nedum. 
murder, interficere. 

naturally, natura. 

need, 5pus est. 

neighbourhood, regio. 

neither, neuter. 

news (no), nihil quod scribam. 

noble, praeclarus. 

obey, parere. 

object, consilium. 

object of hatred, tfdio esse. 

observation, quod dicis. 

obtain, consequi. 

occur, fieri. 

offer, proponere. 

office, hdnor, magistratus. 

officer, legatus. 

often (as ... as), qufities ; often 

(so), toties. 
old age, senectus. 
once (at), statim. 
onlooker, qui aderant. 
only, niSdb. 
opinion, sententia. 
opinion (in my), me iudice. 
oppose, repugnare. 
order, imperatum. 
own, fateri. 

party, partes. 

patient (be), tftlerare. 

pay, solvere. 

persevere, perseverare. 

person who, is qui. 

pick, deligere. 

pity, misereri. 

pleasure, vSluptas. 

point (make... of), studere ut. 

point (on... of), in eo esse ut. 

possible (as), quam with superl. 

powerful, potens. 

prefer, malle. 

pretend, simulare. 

prevent, prQhlbere. 

prison, career. 

prisoner, captlvus. 

prize, praemi'im. 

procession, pompa. 

profession, praecipere. 

proof, argurnentum. 
, protracted, diu. 

prove, se pra^bere, evadere. 

public speaking, contionari. 
j punish, castigare; pass, poenam 

punishment, poena. 

purpose, consilium. 

put (in chains), comcere. 

quite, admtfdum. 

rage, succensere. 

rashness, temeritas. 

rather, comp. 

rather think, baud scio an. 

reach, pervenire ad. 

read, legere. 

ready, paratus. 

refuse (request), denegare. 

reign, regnare. 

rely on, confldere. 

repent, poenitere. 

reproach, culpare. 

repulse, repellere. 

reputation, fama. 

resist, resistere. 

resolve, statuere. 

rest, quies. 

return, tr. reddere; intr. redire. 

Rhone, Rhodanus. 

right, dextra; to the righu, 

rise, 6riri. 

roll away, dissipari. 
rush, concurrere. 

sake, causa, 
save, servare. 
scanty, exiguus. 
see... not, cavere. 
sell, pass, venire. 



send for, arcessere. 

sensible, sagax. 

serve right, iure ac merito (ac- 

sesterce, sestertius. 

set on fire, incendere. 

set sail, navem solvere. 

sheep, ovis. 

shore, lltus. 

show, praebere. 

shrewd, sagax. 

silent (be), tacere. 

silly, stultus. 

since, cum. 

sincerely yours; see 'affection- 
ately '. 

sink, deprimere. 

skilful, perltus. 

sleep, dormire. 

slip by, elabi. 

smile, subridere. 

so far as, quod. 

so far from, tantum abesse. 

so many as, tot...quot. 

so often, tSties. 

solvent (be), solvendo esse. 

somehow or other, nescio quo 

sometimes, aliquando. 

soon, cito, mature. 

sorry (be), poemtere. 

sort of, quidam. 

sort of man, is...qui. 

sound retreat, receptui canere. 

spare, parcere. 

speak, I5qui. 

speech, oratio. 

spider, aranea. 

spite (in... of), quamquam. 

spoken (be... of), audire. 

spur of moment, inconsulte. 

stand by, adstare. 

start, pr6ficisci. 

startle, perterrere. 

state, res publica. 

still, adhuc. 

stir up, commSvere. 

stop, cShibere. 

storm, tempestas. 

stretch out, tendere. 

strive, nlti. 

struggle, certare. 

subdue, subigere. 

subject, res. 

suffer loss, detrimentum capere. 

superiority, praestare. 

sure (be), curare. 

surround, circumdare. 

Syracuse, Sj-racusae. 

take for, piitare. 

talent, talentum. 

talkative, 15quax. 

tedious, longus. 

tell, dicere, imperare. 

temple, aedes. 

thanks, gratiae. 

thanksgiving, supplicatio. 

theft, furtum. 

thief, fur. 

throw, proicere. 

till, dum. 

times, partes. 

tired, taedere. 

together, una. 

to-morrow, eras. 

too much, nimium. 

too., to, comparative +quam ut. 

top, summus. 

traitor, prod i tor. 

travel, !ter facere. 

traveller, viator. 

treat, curare. 

trifles, nugae. 

trite, tritus. 

troublesome, m51estus. 

true, verus. 

trust, fidere, fidem dare. 

turn, vertere. 

twelve per cent, centesimae 


twice two, bis bina. 
tyrant, t^rannus. 

unaccustomed, imperitus, in- 


unavailing, nihil efflcere. 
understand, intellegere. 



unheard, indicia causa, 
universal, omnium, 
unsuccessful, re infecta. 
urge, suadere. 
usual, solere. 

various, (suus quisque). 

vent, indulgere. 

very nearly, minimum 


vexed (be), mSleste ferre. 
victory, (vincentes). 
views, sentire. 

wait, manere, expectare. 
walk, pedibus ire. 

waste, perdere. 

weapon, telum. 

well and good, bene (esse). 

when? quando? 

whipping, verbera (n.). 

white, albus. 

wide, latus. 

without, ita...ut, quln. 

wonder, mirari. 

wound, vulnus (w.), vulnerare 

wrong (do), errare, iniuste agere. 

yesterday, heri. 
yet (not), nondum. 
yonder, ille. 


A:K\JVIJV tions, xci. 1; c. 5. 

Adjectives , compared, i. 5 ; iii. 2 ; xi. 5 ; xxi. 3 ; xxiii. 1 ; xxiv. 7 ; 
xxi* ..4; xxxii. 2; xxxiii. 2; xxxiv. 2; xxxv. 1; xxxvi. 1; xxxvii. 1; 
y " ^cxviii. 1 ; xxxix. 2 ; xl. 1 ; xlii. 1 ; xliv. 1 ; xlv. 1 ; xlvi. 2 ; 

xlvii. 1; xlviii. 2; 1. 2; Ivii. 3. 
Adjectives declined, xii. 6 ; xxxiii. 3 ( v. also under Nouns). 

formed, x. 4; xv. 6; xvii. 3; xxi. 7; xxiii. 2. 
defective or heteroclite, xxix. 3. 

Adverbs classified, xxv. 1. 
formed, xxv. 2. 
compared, xxv. 2, 3; xxxii. 2. 

Adverbial clauses, xxxv. 8; xl. 5; xliv. 4; Iii. 4; Ixvi. 2, 4, 5; Ixvii. 1; 
Ixviii. 1, 2; Ixix. 1; Ixx. 2, 3, 4, 5 ; Iraii. 3, 5; Ixxix. 2, 4; 
Ixxxix. 3; xci. 6. 
Alleged reason, Ixxix. 4. 
Ambiguities, Iviii. 4; Ixxiv. 6. 
Apodosis, Ixx. 1 ; Ixxi. 3 (v. Adverbial clause). 
Archaism, c. 3. 
Attraction, xcvi. 5. 
Aut, vel, li. 5. 

Cases, xxxiii. 6; xxxiv. 7; xxxv. 8; xxxvi. 6; xlii. 3; xliii. 4; li. 6; 
liii. 6 ; Iv. 6 ; Ivi. 7 ; Ixv. 2 ; Ixxvi. 1 ; xcii. 2 ; xciii. 2 ; xciv. 2 ; 
xcv. 2; xcvi. 3. 

Cases, accusative, Ixi. 1, 3, 4, 5; Ixiv. 6. 
ablative, Ixiv. 1, 2, 3, 5; Ixxxii. 3. 
dative, xl. 7; Ixii. 1, 2, 3. 
genitive, Ixiii. 1, 2; Ixiv. 5; Ixxviii. 3; Ixxxviii. 5; xcv. 3; 

also xii. 5; xxiv. 1. 
locative, xii. 3. 
Clauses, v. Adverbial. 

subordinate, Ix. 2; Ixvi. 1, 5; Ixvii. 1; Ixviii. 1; Ixix. 1; Ixx. 3. 
Comparison, v. Adjectives. 
Concord, lix. 1 to 5. 
Conditionals, v. Adverbial, Apodosis. 



Constructions, from xxxii. passim. 

Corrections to be made, xxvi. 5 ; xxxii. 8 ; liii. 5 ; Ivi. 6 ; Ixv. 4 ; 

Ixxvii. 3; xciii. 4. 
Correlatives, xxv. 6. 
Cum, Ixvii. 2; xc. 1. 
Dates, xxxiii. 3; xxvii. 2. 
Dative, v. Cases. 

Defective nouns or adjectives, xxix. 3; xxxviii. 4. 
Derivations, iv. 5 ; ix. 7 ; x. 5 ; xix. 8 ; xxi. 1, 7 ; xxvi. 4 ; xxxi. 6 ; 

xciii. 5. 

Diminutives, xiii. 1; xvii. 2; xviii. 5; xx. 5; xxii. 3. 
Distinctions to be made, vi. 4, 6; viii. 4; xv. 2; xx. 1, 2; xxiv. 3, 4; 

xxv. 5; xxx. 2, 3, 4, 5; xxxi. 2, 3, 5; xxxv. 2; xxxvi. 2; xxxix. 6; 

xli. 7; H. 4; Hii. 3; Hv. 3; Iv. 2; Ivii. 5; Iviii. 3; Ixii. 4; Ixv. 1, 3; 

Ixx. 7; Ixxxii. 1; Ixxxv. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6; Ixxxvi. 2; Ixxxvii. 6. 
Dum, xliii. 5. 
Ellipse, xcviii. 3. 

Endings, meanings of, x. 4; xvii. 4; xviii. 1; Hv. 2. 
Epistolary tenses, xciii. 3; c. 4, 5. 
Figures of speech, xci. 2; xcviii. 1, 2, 5; c. 2. 
Gender, i. 4; ii. 1 to 5; iii. 1; xii. 1, 4; xv. 3; xxi. 5; xxii. 3; xxvi. 1; 

xxix. 1 ; xxxii. 1 ; xxxiii. 1 ; xxxiv. 1 ; xliii. 1 ; xlv. 1 ; xlvi. 1 ; 

xlvii. 1; xlviii. 1; xlix. 1; 1. 1; li. 2; Iv. 1; Ivi. 1; Ix. 7. 
Genitive, v. Cases. 

Gerund, gerundive, xvi. 6; Ixxiv. 3, 4. 
Graecism, c. 3. 
Haud, non, Ixxxiv. 1. 
" He says ", xx. 4. 
Impersonal, v. Verbs. 

Infinitive, 1. 7; Hi. 4; Ixxiii. 2, 6; Ixxiv. 2; xcvi. 1, 2; xcviii. 3. 
Manus, xcvi. 4. 
Meanings, iv. 1; v. 1; vi. 3; vii. 2; viii. 6; xviii. 3, 7; xxii. 2; xxvii. 3; 

xxix. 1; xHv. 1; Ivii. 2. 
Moods, xxxiii. 7; xxxiv. 7; xxxvi. 6; xxxviii. 6; xliii. 4; 1. 7; Hi. 6; 

Iv. 6; Ivii. 6; Ixxii. 5; Ixxiii. 2, 6; Ixxiv. 2; Ixxv. 2: Ixxxix. 1, 

2, 4, 5; xc. 4; xcii. 1. 
Names, xcvii. 5. 
Ne, ut non, Iv. 4. 
Nisi, Ixx. 6; Ixxxiv. 2. 
" No longer ", xxv. 5. 
"Nor", Ixxxiv. 1. 
Nostri, nostrum, x. 3. 
Nouns (and adj.) declined, passim, i. to Ix. 

INDEX. 113 

Nouns, abstract, xvii. 6. 

defective, xxxviii. 4. 

feminine, xv. 2; xvii. 5; xxiv. 6. 

masculine, xvii. 5. 

heteroclite, iii. 7; xxiv. 2. 

heterogeneous, xxiv. 2. 

number of, xxiv. 4; xxxviii. 4. 

special, xv. 2; xxi. 6; xxiv. 1, 2. 

Numerals, i. 5; iii. 4, 5, 6; vii. 3; xxiii. 4; xxvii. 2; xxix. 7; Ivi. 5; xci. 5. 
" Old ", to translate, Ixxxvii. 2. 
" One ", Ixxvi. 4. 

Opus, construction of, Ixxxii. 4. 
Ora, meaning of, Ixxv. 4. 

Oratio obliqua, vii. 7 ; xxvii. 6 ; xxxi. 7 ; xlv. 6 ; xlix. 6 ; Ixiii. 5 ; 
Ixxi. 6; Ixxii. 3, 4; Ixxvi. 2; Ixxx.; Ixxxi.; Ixxxvi. 3; Ixxxviii. 6; 
xc. 5; xcix. 5. 

Oratio recta, xx. 8; xxvi. 7; Ixxxi. 6; xcix. 6. 
Parse, words to, iv. 3; vii. 2; viii. 2; xi. 4, 6; xiv. 5; xv. 1; xviii. 2; 

xix. 3, 5; xxvii. 4; and xxx. to 1. passim. 
Participles, v. 2; xvii. 7; Ixxiii. 1; Ixxv. 1. 
Passive, use of, Ixxviii. 4. 
Patronymics, xvii. 1. 
Periphrastic tenses, xix. 6. 
Persuadeo, Ixix. 5. 
Plurals, v. Nouns. 
Plus, xxv. 4; xxix. 3. 
Postquam, xcii. 3. 
Prepositions, vi. 5 ; vii. 5 ; xxviii 1, 2, 5 ; xxxiv. 6 ; xlii. 1 ; xlv. 1 ; 

xlix. 4; Hi. 5; Ixxviii. 1, 2; Ixxxvii. 3. 
Prohibitions, Ixxxiv. 3; Ixxxvii. 6. 
Pronouns, iii. 3; ix. 5; xx. 1, 2; xxx. 6; xxxii. 3; xxxiii. 3; xlvii. 3; 

Ix. 6; Ixxxiii. 3, 4, 5. 

Protasis, Ixvi. 5; Ixx. 1; Ixxi. 1, 4 (v. Adverbial). 
Proverbs, xcvii. 1. 
Quam, xlv. 4. 
Quamvis, xlix. 4. 
Quantities, xiii. 4; xv. 7; Ivii. 5. 
Questions, Ix. 4, 5; Ixxxi. 2; Ixxxiv. 4, 6, 7. 
Qui, li. 5; Ixxii. 5; Ixxix. 1; Ixxxix. 4. 
Quin, Ixxxvii. 7. 
Quo, Ixix. 4. 
Quod, Ixxix. 4, 5. 
Quominus, Ivii. 6. 

<M450) H 


Reciprocal, xxix. 6. 

Refert, Ixiii. 4. 

Se, suus, Ixxxvi. 4, 5. 

"Sea", Ixxv. 4. 

Sentence, kinds of, Ix. 1. 

Sequence of tenses, Ixix. 6; Ixxii. i. 

Sesterces, Ixxviii. 5. 

Seu, sive, li. 5; Iv. 4; Ivii. 6. 

" Should ", lii. 6. 

Subjunctive, v. Moods. 

Subordinate clause, Ix. 2; Ixvi. 1, 5; Ixvii. 1; Ixviii. 1; Ixix. 1; Ixx, 3 

(v. Adverbial). 
Sunt qui, Ixvii. 6. 
Supines, Ivi. 3; Ixi. 2; Ixxiv. 1. 
Syncopated forms, xi. 3; xxvi. 2; xxvii. 1. 
Tenses, xc. 1; xci. 1; xcii. 1; xciii. 1; xciv. 1: xcv. 1, 4. 
" That ", Ixxii. 7. 
Time, xxxix. 7; xL 5; xciv. 4. 
-" us pure ", xxiv. 7. 
Verbs, principal parts, passim. 

compound, vi. 1, 5; xlvii. 5. 

deponent, xvi. 7; xvii. 7. 

derivative, vi. 2; xx. 3; xxvii. 1; xxxvii. 6. 

impersonal, xvi. 6; Ixi. 5. 

in -io, v. 4. 

passive, vi. 6; vii. 6; ix. 4. 

reduplicating, v. 3; xxii. 5. 

special, iv. 6; v. 5, 6; viii. 6; xv. 5; xx. 6, 7; xli. 5; lii. 3, 7. 

transitive and intransitive, xiii. 3. 

of fearing, 1. 5; Ixxii. 2; Ixxiii. 4. 

,, of preventing, Ixvii. 5. 

with special cases, xxxiv. 5; xxxv. 8; xlviii. 6; Ixiv. 4; xciv. 5; 

xcvi. 2. 

Wishes, xxxvii. 4; xliv. 4; IxxL 2; Ixxvi. 3. 
"Without", liv. 4. 
Words and phrases, to explain or translate, passim. 


The volumes are published with and "without vocabularies 

Caesar Gallic War. Edited by Prof. JOHN BROWN, M.A. Books 

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